Aronson MFJ, La Sorte FA, Nilon CH, Katti M, Goddard MA, Lepczyk CA, et al. A global analysis of the impacts of urbanization on bird and plant diversity reveals key anthropogenic drivers. Proc Biol Sci. 2014;281:20133330.
Barth BJ, FitzGibbon SI, Wilson RS. New urban developments that retain more remnant trees have greater bird diversity. Landsc Urban Plan. 2015;136:122–9.
Bivand R, Altman M, Anselin L, Assunção R, Berke O, Bernat A, et al. spdep: spatial dependence: weighting schemes, statistics and models. R package version 0.5-92. 2015. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=spdep.
Brown JH. Two decades of homage to santa rosalia: toward a general theory of diversity. Integr Comp Biol. 1981;21:877–88.
Carbo-Ramirez P, Zuria I. The value of small urban greenspaces for birds in a Mexican city. Landsc Urban Plan. 2011;100:213–22.
Concepción ED, Obrist MK, Moretti M, Altermatt F, Baur B, Nobis MP. Impacts of urban sprawl on species richness of plants, butterflies, gastropods and birds: not only built-up area matters. Urban Ecosyst. 2016;19:225–42.
Conole LE, Kirkpatrick JB. Functional and spatial differentiation of urban bird assemblages at the landscape scale. Landsc Urban Plan. 2011;100:11–23.
Cornelis J, Hermy M. Biodiversity relationships in urban and suburban parks in Flanders. Landsc Urban Plan. 2004;69:385–401.
Currie DJ. Energy and large-scale patterns of animal- and plant-species richness. Am Nat. 1991;137:27–49.
de Toledo MCB, Donatelli RJ, Batista GT. Relation between green spaces and bird community structure in an urban area in Southeast Brazil. Urban Ecosyst. 2012;15:111–31.
Drummond AJ, Rambaut A. BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees. BMC Evol Biol. 2007;7:214.
Evans KL, Newson SE, Gaston KJ. Habitat influences on urban avian assemblages. Ibis. 2009;151:19–39.
Feng G, Mao L, Sandel B, Swenson NG, Svenning J. High plant endemism in China is partially linked to reduced glacial-interglacial climate change. J Biogeogr. 2016;43:145–54.
Ferenc M, Sedlacek O, Fuchs R, Dinetti M, Fraissinet M, Storch D. Are cities different? Patterns of species richness and beta diversity of urban bird communities and regional species assemblages in Europe. Glob Ecol Biogeogr. 2014;23:479–89.
Fernández-Juricic E. Bird community composition patterns in urban parks of Madrid: the role of age, size and isolation. Ecol Res. 2000;15:373–83.
Gagné SA, Sherman PJ, Singh KK, Meentemeyer RK. The effect of human population size on the breeding bird diversity of urban regions. Biodivers Conserv. 2016;25:653–71.
Goldewijk KK, Beusen A, van Drecht G, de Vos M. The HYDE 3.1 spatially explicit database of human-induced global land-use change over the past 12,000 years. Glob Ecol Biogeogr. 2011;20:73–86.
H-Acevedo D, Currie DJ. Does climate determine broad-scale patterns of species richness? A test of the causal link by natural experiment. Glob Ecol Biogeogr. 2003;12:461–73.
Hawkins BA, Porter EE, Diniz-Filho JAF. Productivity and history as predictors of the latitudinal diversity gradient of terrestrial birds. Ecology. 2003;84:1608–23.
Hawkins BA, Diniz-Filho JAF, Soeller SA. Water links the historical and contemporary components of the Australian bird diversity gradient. J Biogeogr. 2005;32:1035–42.
Hijmans RJ, Cameron SE, Parra JL, Jones PG, Jarvis A. Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. Int J Climatol. 2005;25:1965–78.
Huang Y, Zhao YZ, Li SH, von Gadow K. The effects of habitat area, vegetation structure and insect richness on breeding bird populations in Beijing urban parks. Urban For Urban Green. 2015;14:1027–39.
Jetz W, Thomas GH, Joy JB, Hartmann K, Mooers AO. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature. 2012;491:444–8.
Jiang Z, Jiang J, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Li L, Xie F, et al. Red list of China’s vertebrates. Biodivers Sci. 2016;24:500–51 (in Chinese).
Lepczyk CA, Flather CH, Radeloff VC, Pidgeon AM, Hammer RB, Liu J. Human impacts on regional avian diversity and abundance. Conserv Biol. 2008;22:405–16.
Leveau LM. Bird traits in urban–rural gradients: how many functional groups are there? J Ornithol. 2013;154:655–62.
Li L, Wang Z, Zerbe S, Abdusalih N, Tang Z, Ma M, et al. Species richness patterns and water-energy dynamics in the Drylands of Northwest China. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66450.
Liang C, Feng G, Si X, Mao L, Yang G, Svenning JC, et al. Bird species richness is associated with phylogenetic relatedness, plant species richness, and altitudinal range in Inner Mongolia. Ecol Evol. 2018;8:53–8.
Liu J, Bai H, Ma H, Feng G. Bird diversity in Chinese urban parks was more associated with natural factors than anthropogenic factors. Urban For Urban Green. 2019;43:126358.
Loarie SR, Duffy PB, Hamilton H, Asner GP, Field CB, Ackerly DD. The velocity of climate change. Nature. 2009;462:1052–5.
Loss SR, Ruiz MO, Brawn JD. Relationships between avian diversity, neighborhood age, income, and environmental characteristics of an urban landscape. Biol Conserv. 2009;142:2578–85.
McDonald RI. Global urbanization: can ecologists identify a sustainable way forward? Front Ecol Environ. 2008;6:99–104.
McKinney ML. Effects of urbanization on species richness: a review of plants and animals. Urban Ecosyst. 2008;11:161–76.
Morelli F, Benedetti Y, Su T, Zhou B, Moravec D, Šímová P, et al. Taxonomic diversity, functional diversity and evolutionary uniqueness in bird communities of Beijing’s urban parks: effects of land use and vegetation structure. Urban For Urban Green. 2017;23:84–92.
Oksanen J, Blanchet FG, Kindt R, Legendre P, Minchin PR, O’Hara RB, et al. vegan: Community ecology package. 2015. http://cran.r-project.org/package=vegan.
Olden JD, Poff NL, Douglas MR, Douglas ME, Fausch KD. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of biotic homogenization. Trends Ecol Evol. 2004;19:18–24.
Palacio FX, Ibañez LM, Maragliano RE, Montalti D. Urbanization as a driver of taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity loss in bird communities. Can J Zool. 2018;96:cjz-2018-0008.
Petchey OL, Gaston KJ. Functional diversity: back to basics and looking forward. Ecol Lett. 2010;9:741–58.
Qian H, Zhang Y, Zhang J, Wang X. Latitudinal gradients in phylogenetic relatedness of angiosperm trees in North America. Glob Ecol Biogeogr. 2013;22:1183–91.
R Core Team. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2016.
Rosseel Y. lavaan: an R package for structural equation modeling. J Stat Softw. 2012;48:1–36.
Sol D, Gonzalez-Lagos C, Moreira D, Maspons J, Lapiedra O. Urbanisation tolerance and the loss of avian diversity. Ecol Lett. 2014;17:942–50.
Thompson PS, Greenwood JJD, Greenaway K. Birds in European gardens in the winter and spring of 1988-89. Bird Study. 1993;40:120–34.
Turner JRG. Explaining the global biodiversity gradient: energy, area, history and natural selection. Basic Appl Ecol. 2004;5:435–48.
Turner JRG, Lennon JJ, Lawrenson JA. British bird species distributions and the energy theory. Nature. 1988;335:539–41.
van Rensburg BJ, Chown SL, Gaston KJ. Species richness, environmental correlates, and spatial scale: a test using South African birds. Am Nat. 2002;159:566–77.
Waide R, Willig M, Steiner C, Mittelbach G, Gough L, Dodson S, et al. The relationship between productivity and species richness. Annu Rev Ecol Syst. 1999;30:257–300.
Wang Y, Si X, Bennett PM, Chen C, Zeng D, Zhao Y, et al. Ecological correlates of extinction risk in Chinese birds. Ecography. 2018;41:782–94.
Webb CO, Ackerly DD, McPeek MA, Donoghue MJ. Phylogenies and community ecology. Annu Rev Ecol Syst. 2002;33:475–505.
Wu J, Zhang Q, Li A, Liang C. Historical landscape dynamics of Inner Mongolia: patterns, drivers, and impacts. Landsc Ecol. 2015;30:1579–98.
Xu R. Fauna of Inner Mongolia, vol. III. Hohhot: Inner Mongolia University Press; 2007 (in Chinese).
Xu R. Fauna of Inner Mongolia, vol. IV. Hohhot: Inner Mongolia University Press; 2015 (in Chinese).
Zhang W, Liang C, Liu J, Si X, Feng G. Species richness, phylogenetic and functional structure of bird communities in Chinese university campuses are associated with divergent variables. Urban Ecosyst. 2018;21:1213–25.