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Table 1 The top candidate co-occurrence occupancy models (ΔAIC < 2) used to evaluate the effect of environmental variables and interspecific interaction on the probability of detection and occupancy of  Silver Pheasants and White-necklaced Patridges in Chebaling National Nature Reserve

From: Combined effects of habitat and interspecific interaction define co-occurrence patterns of sympatric Galliformes

Co-occurrence detection models in the dry season AIC ΔAIC Weight K neg2ll
Model1 p(SP + INT_o + SP:INT_o + SP:Distance) 1106.69 0.00 0.1982 8 1090.69
Model2 p(SP + INT_o + SP:INT_o + SP:EVI_dry) 1107.08 0.39 0.1629 8 1091.09
Model3 p(SP + SP:EVI_dry) 1107.83 1.14 0.1120 6 1095.84
Model4 p(SP + INT_o + SP:INT_o) 1108.44 1.75 0.0826 6 1096.44
Model5 p(SP + INT_o + SP:INT_o + SP:EVI_dry + SP:Distance) 1108.50 1.81 0.0803 10 1088.50
Co-occurrence detection model in the wet season AIC ΔAIC Weight K neg2ll
Model6 p(SP + INT_o + SP:EVI_wet) 946.59 0.00 0.4813 7 932.59
Model7 p(SP + INT_o + SP:EVI_wet + SP:Distance) 946.86 0.27 0.4206 9 928.86
Co-occurrence occupancy model in the dry season based on p(SP + INT_o + SP:INT_o + SP:Distance) AIC ΔAIC Weight K neg2ll
Model8 psi(SP + SP:Coverage + SP:Distance) 1098.74 0.00 0.1606 12 1074.74
Model9 psi(SP + SP:Coverage) 1099.54 0.80 0.1075 10 1079.54
Model10 psi(SP + SP:Coverage + SP:Slope) 1099.58 0.84 0.1057 12 1075.57
Model11 psi(SP + INT + SP:Coverage + SP:Distance) 1100.04 1.30 0.0839 13 1074.03
Co-occurrence occupancy model in the wet season based on p(SP + INT_o + SP:EVI_wet) AIC ΔAIC Weight K neg2ll
Model12 psi(SP + SP:EVI_wet + SP:Coverage) 940.80 0.00 0.2026 11 918.80
Model13 psi(SP + INT + SP:EVI_wet + SP:Coverage) 942.15 1.35 0.1031 12 918.15
Model14 psi(SP + SP:Slope + SP:Coverage + SP:EVI_wet) 942.32 1.52 0.0946 13 916.32
  1. K is the number of estimated parameters in the model and ΔAIC is the absolute difference in AIC values relative to the model with the smallest AIC. Weight means AIC weight; neg2ll = the value of twice the negative log-likelihood. SP means species effect on detection or occupancy, INT_o = the occurrence of dominant species changes the detection or occupancy probability of the other subordinate species, INT_d = the detection of dominant species changes the detection or occupancy probability of the subordinate species in the same survey, SP:INT_o means occurrence of two species change the detection probability interactively. The term “EVI_dry” in parentheses denotes that the detection probability of species was estimated for enhanced vegetation index in the dry season, “EVI_wet” means enhanced vegetation index in the wet season, “Distance” means the nearest distance to the resident settlement, “Coverage” means forest canopy coverage, “Elevation” means the mean elevation of each grid cell, and “Slope” means the mean slope of each grid cell