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Table 1 Major flock studies in East Asia, with data on their species richness and leadership

From: The structure of mixed-species bird flocks, and their response to anthropogenic disturbance, with special reference to East Asia

Authors (year of publication) Province or Island Latitude Longitude Habitat Species richness Leadership
>25% >10% >5%
Zou et al. (2011) Hainan 18°23′-18°52′N 108°36′-109°05′E Mature 4 11 21 Alcippe hueti
Jiang (2007) Guangxi ~22°28′N ~106°57′E Successional and mature 6 16 25 Alcippe davidi
Zhang et al. (2013) Guangdong 23°09′-23°11′N 112°30′- 112°33′E Mature 6 12 17 Alcippe hueti
Zhang et al. (2013) Guangdong 23°09′-23°11′N 112°30′- 112°33′E Successional 3 8 11 Zosterops japonicus (but not “cohesive”)
Chen and Hsieh (2002); Hsieh and Chen (2011) Taiwan ~24°34′N ~121°34′E Mature 8 12 16 Alcippe morrisonia
Seki and Sato (2002) Kyushu ~32°49′N ~130°44′E Mature n/a n/a n/a Aegithalos caudatus; 2 tits also dominant
Suzuki (2012) Honshu 36°21′- 36°22′N 138°35′- 138°36′E Mature <4 <4 <4 Dominated by 3 tit species
Kubota and Nakamura (2000); Nakamura and Shindo (2001) Honshu ~37°08′N ~138°14′E Gardens and mature <4 <4 <4 Dominated by 2 tit species and Aegithalos caudatus
Lee and Jabłoński (1999, 2006); Jabłoński and Lee (2002) Seoul ~37°33′N ~126°58′E Mature 4 <8 <8 Dominated by 4 tit species and Aegithalos caudatus
Ogasawara (1965, 1970, 1975) Honshu ~38°15′N ~140°53′E Gardens n/a n/a n/a Dominated by 4 tit species and Aegithalos caudatus
Hino (2005) Hokkaido ~43°10′N ~141°22′E Mature n/a n/a n/a Dominated by 2 tit species and Aegithalos caudatus
Gao (1987, 1991); Gao et al. (1993) Jilin 44°01′-44°06′N 126°00′-126°09′E Mature 4 8 10 Dominated by 3 tit species and Aegithalos caudatus