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Table 3 Model selection establishing variations in Common Blackbird presence in relation to fine-scale landscape components and time after sunrise

From: Vineyards, but not cities, are associated with lower presence of a generalist bird, the Common Blackbird (Turdus merula), in Western France

Model Fixed parameters df LL AICc ΔAICc wi
Woodland census sites
 M0 Null model 1 ‒ 21.083 44.303 0 0.257
 M1 Time 2 ‒ 19.979 44.386 0.083 0.247
 M2 PTrees + Time 3 ‒ 19.335 45.559 1.256 0.137
 M3 PImpervious + Time 3 ‒ 19.405 45.698 1.395 0.128
 M4 PTrees 2 ‒ 20.675 45.779 1.476 0.123
Urban census sites
 M0 Null model 1 ‒ 20.690 43.519 0 0.101
 M1 PHerb 2 ‒ 19.778 43.985 0.466 0.080
 M2 PGrasslands 2 ‒ 19.784 43.997 0.478 0.080
 M3 PImpervious 2 ‒ 19.795 44.018 0.499 0.079
 M4 Time 2 ‒ 20.001 44.430 0.912 0.064
Farmland census sites
 M1 PTrees + Time 3 ‒ 16.467 39.823 0 0.176
 M0 Null model 1 ‒ 19.493 41.123 1.301 0.092
 M2 PGrasslands 2 ‒ 18.414 41.256 1.433 0.086
 M3 PTrees 2 ‒ 18.446 41.322 1.499 0.083
 M4 POrchards 2 ‒ 18.685 41.799 1.976 0.066
  1. Models are ranked according to decreasing statistical support, as indicated by AICc. The 5 best models are shown. Only landscape components that were present in more than two sites were added in the initial model. Percentage of the census site covered by: impervious areas, PImpervious; built-up areas, PBuilt-up; herb layer, PHerb; shrub and tree layers, PTrees; grasslands, PGrasslands; orchards, POrchards; vineyards, PVineyards; other types of crops, PCroplands; or aquatic systems, PWater. Time since sunrise: Time