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Table 4 A review of Brown-headed Cowbird parasitism frequencies on Red-winged Blackbird nests across North America

From: Egg rejection behavior does not explain the lack of cowbird parasitism on an eastern North American population of Red-winged Blackbirds

State/provinceCounty/areaNests examinedNests parasitizedParasitism frequency (%)References
BCWestham Island~ 140030.2Picman (1986)
BCProvincewide1416282.0Campbell et al. (2001)
BCOkanagan Valley10711.0Ward and Smith (2000)
BCOkanagan Valley2582911.2Cannings et al. (1987)
CAFresno County400.0Verner and Ritter (1983)
CACentral Valley8567.1Payne (1973)
WAGrant County13251027.7Freeman et al. (1990)
WAColumbia National Wildlife Refuge20391989.7Orians et al. (1989)
WAWhitman County24312.5King (1954)
West total66583685.5 
COBoulder County591142.4Vierling (2000)
COBoulder County2954715.9Carello and Snyder (2000)
COBoulder County792126.6Ortega et al. (1994)
COBoulder County97b55.2Ortega et al. (1994)
CO 802789.7Ortega (1991) in Ortega (1998)
CO 3712.7Ortega and Ortega unpub. data in Ortega (1998)
CO, WY 1542717.5Hanka (1979)
IANorthern IA3434011.7Delphey and Dinsmore (1993)
IADickinson County983232.7Lowther (1983)
IL 2002512.5Merrill et al. (2017)
ILScott County150b4429.3Peer (2017)
ILDupage County1395237.4Strausberger (2001)
ILColes County34451.5Peer and Bollinger (1997)
ILstatewide21762.8Robinson et al. (2000)
IL, AR 653142.1Smith (1949)
KSFlint Hills67014721.9Rivers et al. (2010)
KSDouglas County732230.1Fleischer (1986)
KSRiley County29931.0Facemire (1980)
KSRiley County11100.0Elliott (1978)
KS, NE, MO 5135.9Lowther (1977)
KSEllis County2285021.9Hill (1976)
LA 754121.6Goertz (1977)
MBDelta Marsh153b32.0Capper et al. (2012)
MBDelta Marsh37924.3Underwood and Sealy (2008)
MBDelta Marsh3946015.2Woolfenden et al. (2004)
MBDelta Marsh2134219.7Neudorf and Sealy (1994)
MBDelta Marsh38213234.6Weatherhead (1989)
NDRichland and Ransom Counties551425.5Pietz et al. (2009)
NDStatewide78633943.1Igl and Johnson (2007)
NDSouth central ND934043.0Koford et al. (2000)
NDCass County25810942.2Linz and Bolin (1982)
NDArrowwood National Wildlife Refuge171376.5Houston (1973)
NEEastern and south-central NE593254.2Hergenrader (1962)
OKMarshall County7322.7Ely (1957) in Wiens (1963)
OKMarshall County3300.0Wiens (1963)
OKOsage and Washington Counties2054019.5Patten et al. (2006)
SDLincoln County532852.8Blankespoor et al. (1982)
WIRock County194229115.0Yasukawa et al. (2016)
WIDiehls Prairie3197924.8Clotfelter and Yasukawa (1999)
Central total11,077188817.0 
MDStatewide100020.2Robbins and Blom (1996)
MI > 100030.3Walkinshaw (1991)
MICheboygan and Emmet Counties4400.0Southern and Southern (1980)
MI 130070.5Nickell (1955)
MIWashtenaw County9955.1Berger (1951)
NYIthaca> 10000.0Henger and Hauber (2014)
NYNew York City1218.3Henger and Hauber (2014)
NYDutchess County3500.0Hahn and Hatfield (1995)
ONProvincewide60271632.4Peck and James (1987)
PABerks County4500.0Unpublished data from Reading Public Museum
PABerks County64b11.6This study
QCSouthern QC1000c20.2Terrill (1961)
SCCharleston County7222.8Whitehead et al. (2002)
East total10,6861851.7 
  1. aWe divided North America into three general geographic areas. West included all states and provinces west of the Rocky Mountains. Central included states and provinces from the Rocky Mountains east through Manitoba, Minnesota, and Wisconsin south to Louisiana. East included all states and provinces from the east coast west through Ontario, Michigan, and Indiana south to Mississippi
  2. bIncludes experimentally parasitized nests
  3. cReported as “less than 0.2% parasitism” with two nests parasitized of “many hundreds” examined. We estimated 1000 nests inspected to calculate this frequency