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Table 4 Relationships of residual of bill length or residual of tarsus length with each environmental variable

From: Bergmann’s rule and Allen’s rule in two passerine birds in China

Species Trait Sex (n) Parameter Latitude Elevation bio1 bio5 bio6 bio10 bio11
Pica serica Residual of bill length Male (78) p < 0.001 ns < 0.001 0.011 < 0.001 0.001 < 0.001
R 2 0.413   0.313 0.099 0.381 0.151 0.355
Female (74) p < 0.001 0.006 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
R 2 0.211 0.096 0.256 0.139 0.236 0.190 0.240
Residual of tarsus length Male (81) p < 0.001 ns 0.001 ns < 0.001 ns < 0.001
R 2 0.261   0.144   0.226   0.210
Female (80) p < 0.001 ns < 0.001 ns < 0.001 0.03 < 0.001
R 2 0.354   0.297   0.362 0.081 0.366
Parus minor Residual of bill length Male (244) p ns ns ns ns ns ns ns
R 2        
Female (121) p ns ns ns ns ns ns ns
R 2        
Residual of tarsus length Male (248) p ns ns ns ns ns ns ns
R 2        
Female (121) p ns ns ns ns ns ns ns
R 2        
  1. The abbreviations were the same as in Table 3