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Table 3 Outputs of general linear mixed models

From: Weather conditions affect spring and autumn migration of Siberian leaf warblers

Species Spring migration   Autumn migration
Estimate χ 2 p Estimate χ 2 p
ALL Temperature 0.42 133.3 *** Temperature 0.22 18.4 ***
Precipitation 0.09 8.7 0.003 Precipitation − 0.53 121.4 ***
Air pressure ‒0.10 9.4 0.002 Air pressure − 0.25 39.3 ***
Wind speed 0.09 9.3 0.002 Wind speed − 0.29 65.6 ***
Wind direction   65.8 *** Wind direction   54.6 ***
    Headwind − 0.30        Headwind − 0.39   
    Crosswind − 0.05        Crosswind − 0.17   
    Tailwind − 0.72        Tailwind 0.08   
R 2marg 0.03    R 2marg 0.12   
R 2cond 0.82    R 2cond 0.84   
Dusky Warbler Temperature 0.41 17.0 *** Temperature 0.35 16.9 ***
Precipitation 0.09 1.0 0.321 Precipitation − 0.50 37.7 ***
Air pressure − 0.01 0.0 0.861 Air pressure − 0.13 4.3 0.039
Wind speed 0.08 1.0 0.310 Wind speed − 0.09 2.4 0.121
Wind direction   17.0 *** Wind direction   18.8 ***
    Headwind 0.42        Headwind 0.29   
    Crosswind 1.12        Crosswind 0.53   
    Tailwind 0.08        Tailwind 0.76   
R 2marg 0.09    R 2marg 0.18   
R 2cond 0.75    R 2cond 0.84   
Pallas’s Leaf Warbler Temperature 0.40 5.2 0.022 Temperature − 0.27 2.3 0.126
Precipitation 0.01 0.0 0.946 Precipitation − 0.24 2.2 0.137
Air pressure − 0.03 0.0 0.870 Air pressure 0.10 0.7 0.417
Wind speed 0.02 0.0 0.900 Wind speed − 0.43 13.1 ***
Wind direction   4.7 0.096 Wind direction   6.3 0.043
    Headwind − 1.11        Headwind − 2.05   
    Crosswind − 0.34        Crosswind − 1.74   
    Tailwind − 1.35        Tailwind − 1.51   
R 2marg 0.09    R 2marg 0.07   
R 2cond 0.34    R 2cond 0.71   
Radde’s Warbler Temperature 0.56 8.9 0.003 Temperature 0.38 5.9 0.016
Precipitation 0.00 0.0 0.993 Precipitation − 0.45 8.5 0.004
Air pressure 0.01 0.0 0.932 Air pressure − 0.54 16.2 ***
Wind speed 0.13 0.7 0.399 Wind speed − 0.27 16.2 0.022
Wind direction   2.5 0.292 Wind direction   6.3 0.043
    Headwind − 1.12        Headwind − 2.07   
    Crosswind − 1.17        Crosswind − 1.41   
    Tailwind − 1.67        Tailwind − 1.77   
R 2marg 0.10    R 2marg 0.13   
R 2cond 0.44    R 2cond 0.70   
Yellow-browed Warbler Temperature 0.44 118.6 *** Temperature 0.21 7.5 0.006
Precipitation 0.09 7.1 0.008 Precipitation − 0.57 68.7 ***
Air pressure − 0.14 16.4 *** Air pressure − 0.32 24.6 ***
Wind speed 0.08 6.6 0.010 Wind speed − 0.45 71.3 ***
Wind direction   46.1 *** Wind direction   27.6 ***
    Headwind 0.98        Headwind 0.39   
    Crosswind 1.12        Crosswind 0.59   
    Tailwind 0.57        Tailwind 0.89   
R 2marg 0.03    R 2marg 0.18   
R 2cond 0.94    R 2cond 0.92   
  1. Estimates refer to the slope related to the variables, but represent the mean for categorical variables (wind direction, in italics). Shown are test statistics, R 2marg (fixed factors alone) and R 2cond (fixed + random factor). p values below 0.001 are marked as ***
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