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Table 4 A summary of national policies, laws and international conventions of the countries that share the Kangchenjunga Landscape (in chronological order)

From: Birds of the Kangchenjunga Landscape, the Eastern Himalaya: status, threats and implications for conservation

  Bhutan India Nepal
Some national policies National Forest Policy 1974 Forest Policy 1952 New Forest Policy 1978
Master plan for forest development 1990 National conservation Strategy and Policy Statement, India 1992 National Conservation Strategy 1988 which is later revisited as Nature Conservation National Strategic Framework for Sustainable development (2015–2030)
Biodiversity Action plan 1994 National Forest Policy 1998 Environment Policy and action Plan 1993
National Environment Strategy (“The Middle Path”) 1998 National Wildlife Action Plan (2002–2016) Tenth Plan (2002–2007)
Biodiversity Action Plan 2002 National Action Plan on Climate Change 2008 Nepal Biodiversity Strategy 2002
Revision of Forest Policy draft 2010 National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan 2009 Sustainable Development Agenda for Nepal 2003
Nepal Biodiversity Strategy Implementation Plan 2006
National Bio-safety framework 2006
Three-year Interim Plan (2007–2010)
National Agriculture Policy 2004
Rangeland Policy 2012
National Wetland Policy 2012
Vulture Conservation Action Plan (2009–2013)
National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2014–2020)
Some national laws Bhutan Forest Act 1969 Indian Forest Act 1927 and its successive amendments 1980 Nepal Legal Code “the muliki ain” 1854
Forest and Nature Conservation Act 1995 Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972 (last amended in 2013) Nepal Forest Nationalization Act 1957
Environment Assessment Act 2002 Environment Protection Act 1986 Nepal Forest Act 1962 its amendments 1968
Forest and Nature Conservation Rules Volumes I & II 2002 Panchayati Raj (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act 1996 Forest Act 1993
National Biodiversity Act 2003 Biological Diversity Act 2002 National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act, Nepal 1972 and amendment 2002
Land Act of Bhutan 2007
National Environment Protection Act 2007
International conventions Ramsar Convention 1971 Ramsar Convention 1971 Ramsar convention 1971
United Nations Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) 1975 UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere Programme 1971 CITES
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 1992 CITES 1975 Bonn convention 1983
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 1992 Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (Bonn Convention) 1983 CBD 1992
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) 1994 CBD 1992 UNFCCC 1992
UNFCCC 1992 UNCCD 1994
UNCCD 1994 Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC
IBAs 23 (8 within protected area network) 465 (279 with in protected areas network and 16 are listed as Ramsar sites) 27 (13 within protected areas network)