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Table 1 Activity time budgets of Hooded Cranes over five water level stages at Shengjin Lake

From: Effect of water level fluctuations on temporal-spatial patterns of foraging activities by the wintering Hooded Crane (Grus monacha)

Habitat type Behavior Activity time budgets at various water level stages (%) Statistical test
a b c d e Chi Square value (χ2) p
Mudflat Foraging 0.47 ± 0.06 0.59 ± 0.02 0.50 ± 0.05 0.35 ± 0.06 0.29 ± 0.07 17.328 0.002**
Alert 0.36 ± 0.06 0.23 ± 0.03 0.25 ± 0.03 0.25 ± 0.03 0.34 ± 0.05 7.36 0.118
Maintenance 0.12 ± 0.03 0.08 ± 0.02 0.16 ± 0.03 0.26 ± 0.04 0.27 ± 0.05 14.273 0.006**
Social behavior 0.00 ± 0.00 0.01 ± 0.01 0.01 ± 0.01 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 5.153 0.272
Locomotion 0.04 ± 0.01 0.08 ± 0.02 0.06 ± 0.02 0.13 ± 0.03 0.11 ± 0.04 5.407 0.248
Resting 0.01 ± 0.01 0.00 ± 0.00 0.02 ± 0.01 0.01 ± 0.01 0.00 ± 0.00 5.626 0.229
Meadow Foraging 0.60 ± 0.09 0.70 ± 0.06 0.74 ± 0.02 0.79 ± 0.04 0.79 ± 0.04 5.508 0.230
Alert 0.21 ± 0.05 0.15 ± 0.03 0.18 ± 0.02 0.15 ± 0.02 0.16 ± 0.03 2.697 0.610
Maintenance 0.11 ± 0.05 0.12 ± 0.04 0.05 ± 0.01 0.04 ± 0.02 0.03 ± 0.01 2.731 0.604
Social behavior 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.01 ± 0.01 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 2.750 0.600
Locomotion 0.04 ± 0.02 0.03 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.01 2.054 0.726
Resting 0.04 ± 0.03 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 7.346 0.119
Paddy field Foraging 0.63 ± 0.06 0.71 ± 0.05 0.79 ± 0.03 0.73 ± 0.04 3.391 0.355
Alert 0.28 ± 0.04 0.22 ± 0.04 0.13 ± 0.02 0.20 ± 0.03 6.485 0.090
Maintenance 0.06 ± 0.03 0.07 ± 0.03 0.06 ± 0.02 0.05 ± 0.01 7.670 0.053
Social behavior 0.03 ± 0.01 0.00 ± 0.00 0.01 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 14.895 0.002**
Locomotion 0.03 ± 0.01 0.01 ± 0.00 0.01 ± 0.00 0.01 ± 0.00 14.837 0.002**
Resting 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 2.303 0.512
  1. Samples: (a) Stable stage: mudflat n = 21; meadow n = 25; paddy field n = 32; (b) Falling stage: mudflat n = 25; meadow n = 26; paddy field n = 35; (c) Drought stage: mudflat n = 22; meadow n = 30; paddy field n = 31; (d) Early recovery stage: mudflat n = 25; meadow n = 26; paddy field n = 22; (e) Late recovery stage: mudflat n = 27; meadow n = 31; paddy field n = 0.
  2. p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; n = the sample size.
  3. – denotes that the cranes did not utilize this habitat.