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Table 1 Univariate measurements of morphometrics of the Locustella mandelli complex and L. alishanensis

From: Integrative taxonomy of the Russet Bush Warbler Locustella mandelli complex reveals a new species from central China

  Taxon Significance levels
Variable Mandelli Melanorhyncha Sichuan BW Idonea Alishanensis Seebohmi Timorensis Montis Mandelli vs. melanorhyncha Mandelli vs. Sichuan BW Melanorhyncha vs. Sichuan BW Mandelli + melanorhyncha vs. montis Sichuan BW vs. montis
Culmen l from skull 14.40 ± 0.43(13.6–15.2; 30) 13.60 ± 0.43(12.7–14.1; 16) 15.14 ± 0.66(14.1–16.2; 10) 14.10 ± 1.13 (13.3–14.9; 2) 14.38 ± 0.52(13.6–15.1; 6) 14.2 14.60 ± 0.28(14.4–14.8; 2) 15.21 ± 0.79(13.1–16.9; 39) ***   *** ***  
Culmen length from skull (P.A./P.J.L.)   13.3(12.7–14; 5) 14.7(13.5–15.6; 13)           
Culmen length from feathers 10.74 ± 0.41(9.9–11.6; 30) 10.14 ± 0.43(9.3–10.8; 16) 11.09 ± 0.63(10.3–12.2; 11) 10.45 ± 0.92(9.8–11.1; 2) 10.05 ± 0.52(9.1–10.6; 6) 11.0 10.75 ± 0.07(10.7–10.8; 2) 11.26 ± 0.69(10.0–12.9; 40) **   * ***  
Bill depth from distal nostrils 3.07 ± 0.16(2.7–3.4; 32) 3.04 ± 0.13(2.7–3.2; 18) 3.14 ± 0.20(2.8–3.5; 12) 3.10 ± 0.14 (3.0–3.2; 2) 2.95 ± 0.19(2.7–3.2; 6) 3.2 3.20 ± 0.0(3.2; 2) 3.31 ± 0.21(2.9–3.6; 38)     ***  
Bill depth from distal nostrils (P.A./P.J.L.)   3.0(3.0; 3) 3.1(2.8–3.3; 7)           
Bill width from distal nostrils 2.76 ± 0.18(2.4–3.2; 33) 2.67 ± 0.22(2.3–3.0; 18) 2.95 ± 0.22(2.6–3.4; 11) 2.9 ± 0.0(3) 2.53 ± 0.14(2.3–2.7; 6) 2.9 2.65 ± 0.35(2.4–2.9; 2) 2.93 ± 0.21(2.4–3.5; 41)     ***  
Bill width from distal nostrils (P.A./P.J.L.)   3.0(2.9–3.1; 2)            
Wing length (flattened) 52.54 ± 2.36(49.0–57.0; 33) 50.30 ± 1.07(48.0–52.0; 17) 55.23 ± 1.31(53.0–58.0; 11) 51.33 ± 1.16(50.0–52.0; 3) 54.75 ± 1.54(53.0–57.5; 6) 52.0 53.50 ± 0.71(53.0–54.0; 2) 53.81 ± 1.82(49.5–57.0; 42) *** ** *** ***  
Wing length (P.A./P.J.L.)   51.5(49–55; 5) 56.07(53.0–57.5; 13)           
P1 shortfall 23.63 ± 1.63(20.7–28.4; 30) 22.36 ± 1.12(21.0–25.1; 18) 25.06 ± 1.61(22.8–27.9; 11) 22.67 ± 1.17(21.8–24.0; 3) 24.45 ± 1.19(22.8–26.0; 6) 24.3 24.95 ± 0.50(24.6–25.3; 2) 24.33 ± 1.59(20.0–28.0; 41)    ** *  
P2 shortfall 8.97 ± 1.11(7.0–10.9; 29) 9.02 ± 1.11(6.5–11.3; 18) 8.97 ± 1.90(6.0–13.7; 11) 8.90 ± 1.01(8.0–10.0; 3) 9.63 ± 0.44(9.1–10.3; 6) 9.5 10.65 ± 1.49(9.6–11.7; 2) 10.58 ± 1.19(8.0–13.2; 41)     ***  
P3 shortfall 2.11 ± 0.84(0–3.6; 28) 2.14 ± 0.55(1.0–3.1; 18) 1.60 ± 0.37(1.0–2.0; 9) 1.27 ± 1.10(0–2.0; 3) 2.55 ± 0.75(1.6–3.3; 6) 2.5 1.75 ± 1.06(1.0–2.5; 2) 2.61 ± 0.80(1.0–4.0; 41)      ***
P4 shortfall 0.49 ± 0.60(0–1.7; 29) 0.37 ± 0.44(0–1.0; 18) 0.00 ± 0.00(0; 9) 0.17 ± 0.29(0–0.5; 3) 1.05 ± 0.84(0–1.8; 6) 1.0 0.35 ± 0.21(0.20–0.50; 2) 0.46 ± 0.59(0–2.0; 40)      
P5 shortfall 0.03 ± 0.19(0–1.0; 29) 0.08 ± 0.26(0–1.0; 18) 0.11 ± 0.22(0–0.5; 9) 0 ± 0(3) 0.18 ± 0.30(0–0.7; 6) 0 0 ± 0(2) 0 ± 0(40)      
P1 length 14.16 ± 1.30(11.3–16.1; 30) 14.38 ± 1.09(13.1–16.4; 18) 15.76 ± 1.67(12.9–19.0; 11) 14.10 ± 0.17(14.0–14.3; 3) 14.47 ± 1.53(12.4–16.8; 6) 13.4 13.90 ± 1.27(13.0–14.8; 2) 15.20 ± 1.20(14.0–16.4; 3)      
P2 length 28.31 ± 1.52(25.9–32.2; 27) 27.35 ± 1.72(24.4–29.9; 16) 31.88 ± 2.47(29.0–37.1; 9) 27.90 ± 0.95(26.9–28.8; 3) 28.63 ± 1.41(26.7–30.8; 6) 27.8 27.90 ± 0.99(27.2–28.6; 2) 30.10 ± 0.36(29.7–30.4; 3)    ** ***  
Primary projection 6.88 ± 0.96(4.9–8.9; 27) 6.58 ± 1.36(4.1–8.2; 12) 8.10 ± 1.58(5.3–10.2; 9) 4.95 ± 0.07 (4.9–5.0; 2) 5.42 ± 0.71(4.4–6.0; 4) 5.9 5.90 ± 1.27(5.0–6.8; 2) 6.90 ± 1.81(5.0–8.6; 3)      
Tarsus length 19.00 ± 0.96(16.7–21.3; 34) 18.63 ± 0.77(17.0–20.1; 18) 18.30 ± 0.77(16.8–19.8; 11) 18.75 ± 0.65(18.1–19.4; 3) 19.53 ± 0.72(18.4–20.6; 6) 19.7 19.50 ± 0.14(19.4–19.6; 2) 20.72 ± 0.67(19.2–22.5; 41)     *** ***
Tarsus length(P.A./P.J.L.)   17.3(16.6–17.7; 3) 18.3(17.5–19.4; 13)           
Tarsus proximal depth 2.38 ± 0.21(1.8–2.7; 33) 2.28 ± 0.22(1.7–2.5; 16) 2.43 ± 0.14(2.2–2.7; 9) 2.33 ± 0.23(2.2–2.6; 3) 2.58 ± 0.23(2.4–3.0; 6) 2.6 2.70 ± 0.0(2) 2.86 ± 0.17(2.6–3.3; 40)     *** ***
Tarsus distal width 2.56 ± 0.15(2.3–3.0; 32) 2.48 ± 0.15(2.2–2.7; 17) 2.54 ± 0.07(2.5–2.6; 9) 2.53 ± 0.32(2.3–2.9; 3) 2.75 ± 0.15(2.5–2.9; 6) 2.7 2.85 ± 0.07(2.8–2.9; 2) 2.91 ± 0.12(2.6–3.2; 41)     *** ***
Tarsus minimum width 1.10 ± 0.08(1.0–1.3; 31) 1.04 ± 0.07(0.9–1.2; 15) 1.08 ± 0.07(1.0–1.2; 9) 1.13 ± 0.58(1.10–1.20; 3) 1.08 ± 0.08(1.0–1.2; 6) 1.4 1.20 ± 0.0(1.2; 2) 1.12 ± 0.07(1.0–1.2; 41)      
Tarsus minimum depth 1.76 ± 0.16(1.4–2.1; 30) 1.67 ± 0.12(1.4–1.8; 15) 1.81 ± 0.13(1.6–2.0; 9) 1.83 ± 0.12(1.7–1.9; 3) 1.82 ± 0.15(1.7–2.0; 6) 1.9 1.80 ± 0.14(1.7–1.9; 2) 1.90 ± 0.13(1.7–2.1; 41)     ***  
Middle claw length 3.90 ± 0.32(3.1–4.7; 32) 3.76 ± 0.29(3.0–4.2; 17) 4.01 ± 0.19(3.7–4.3; 9) 4.30 ± 0.40(3.9–4.7; 3) 4.15 ± 0.16(3.9–4.4; 6) 4.6 4.05 ± 0.07(4.0–4.1; 2) 4.27 ± 0.26(3.6–4.7; 38)     ***  
Hindclaw length 6.22 ± 0.40(5.4–6.9; 31) 5.88 ± 0.37(5.2–6.6; 14) 6.09 ± 0.25(5.8–6.5; 11) 5.73 ± 0.70(5.0–6.4; 3) 6.65 ± 0.22(6.3–6.9; 6) 6.4 6.45 ± 0.64(6.0–6.9; 2) 6.42 ± 0.39(5.4–7.2; 41)     *  
Hindclaw length (P.A./P.J.L.)   5.6(5.3–6.0; 6) 6.0(5.5–6.4; 9)           
Tail length 59.13 ± 3.16(52.8–65.2; 29) 57.01 ± 1.88(52.1–59.7; 16) 52.06 ± 3.90(46.7–56.9; 11) 60.10 ± 2.83(58.1–62.1; 2) 60.06 ± 2.08(57.3–62.5; 5) 62.1 64.3 ± 2.0(62.9–65.7; 2) 59.36 ± 3.36(53.2–65.9; 41)   ** *   ***
Tail length (P.A./P.J.L.)   59.8(57–67; 5) 55.9(52–58; 11)           
Central rectrix width 10.45 ± 0.86(8.0–12.0; 28) 10.28 ± 0.79(8.8–11.7; 16) 9.22 ± 0.80(8.1–10.5; 9) 10.13 ± 1.17(8.8–11.0; 3) 10.88 ± 0.84(9.7–11.6; 5) 13.1 10.45 ± 0.07(10.4–10.5; 2) 12.38 ± 0.88(11.0–14.0; 40)   *   *** ***
Undertail coverts length from pygostyle 31.15 ± 5.00(21.0–38.5; 26) 27.21 ± 3.85(21.4–33.5; 16) 28.66 ± 2.93(24.6–33.2; 8) 28.65 ± 3.61(26.1–31.2; 3) 28.53 ± 2.41(24.0–30.3; 6) 31.6 28.40 ± 2.12(26.9–29.9; 2) 26.58 ± 3.62(18.0–32.0; 37)    * *  
Undertail coverts to tail tip 31.28 ± 5.29(21.0–38.5; 23) 32.32 ± 3.80(24.0–43.0; 17) 25.51 ± 2.86(19.7–28.2; 10) 33.4 ± 3.68 (30.8–36.0; 2) 35.16 ± 4.58(31.6–42.4; 5) 32.8 37.90 ± 4.53(34.7–41.1; 2) 34.70 ± 3.73(28.0–42.0; 38)   ** ***   ***
Maximum pale tip width 3.00 ± 0.74(1.8–4.6; 30) 2.69 ± 0.41(2.1–3.7; 13) 3.44 ± 1.23(2.1–5.6; 10) 2.67 ± 0.68(1.9–3.2; 3) 2.92 ± 0.34(2.5–3.5; 6) 3.1 2.20 ± 0.28(2.0–2.4; 2) 2.40 ± 0.52(1.4–3.5; 35)     *  
Wing/tail ratio 0.91 ± 0.08(0.78–1.09; 28) 0.88 ± 0.04(0.84–0.97; 17) 1.06 ± 0.08(0.97–1.18; 11) 0.85 ± 0.02(0.84–0.86; 2) 0.90 ± 0.04(0.86–0.96; 5) 0.84 0.83 ± 0.04(0.81–0.86; 2) 0.91 ± 0.05(0.82–1.03; 41)   *** ***   ***
Culmen/tail ratio 0.24 ± 0.01(0.22–0.27; 23) 0.24 ± 0.01(0.23–0.28; 15) 0.29 ± 0.02(0.26–0.32; 10) 0.21 (1) 0.24 ± 0.01 (0.22–0.25; 5) 0.23 0.23 ± 0.01(0.22–0.24; 2) 0.26 ± 0.02 (0.22–0.30; 38)   *** *** ** **
Tail l/c rectrix w ratio 5.64 ± 0.29(5.12–6.19; 26) 5.50 ± 0.28(5.05–5.95; 16) 5.60 ± 0.46(5.07–6.62; 9) 5.56 ± 0.12(5.48–5.65; 2) 5.54 ± 0.38 (5.06–5.96; 5) 4.74 6.15 ± 0.15(6.05–6.26; 2) 4.83 ± 0.41 (3.81–5.88; 40)     *** *
(Wing + culmen)/tail 1.13 ± 0.07(1.00–1.33; 23) 1.13 ± 0.05(1.08–1.23; 15) 1.34 ± 0.08(1.23–1.48; 10) 1.05 (1) 1.14 ± 0.05(1.10–1.21; 5) 1.07 1.06 ± 0.05(1.03–1.09; 2) 1.17 ± 0.06(1.06–1.33; 38)   *** ***   
Lower mandible color 5.5 ± 2.3(2–10; 26) 6.8 ± 2.3(2–10; 11) 7.8 ± 1.6(5–9; 8) 5.3 ± 2.5(3–8; 3) 5.0 ± 1.8(3–7; 4) 2 3.5 ± 0.7(3–4; 2) 5.4 ± 1.8(1–8; 41)   *    **
Upperparts color 8.0 ± 1.3(3–9; 27) 7.9 ± 1.0(6–9; 12) 3.9 ± 2.9(1–10; 8) 2.3 ± 2.3(1–5; 3) 4.8 ± 0.5(4–5; 4) 6 5 ± 0.0(2) 8.9 ± 0.3(8–9; 42)   ** ** *** ***
Supercilium prominence 5.0 ± 1.0(3–7; 26) 3.8 ± 1.1(3–6; 12) 3.5 ± 0.8(3–5; 6) 8.7 ± 0.6(8–9; 3) 3.3 ± 0.5(3–4; 4) 7 4.5 ± 0.7(4–5; 2) 2.8 ± 0.8(1–5; 42) ** *   ***  
Throat ground color 2.8 ± 0.8(1–4; 27) 3.1 ± 0.7(2–4; 12) 3.0 ± 0.8(2–4; 7) 1 ± 0.0(3) 2.3 ± 0.5(2–3; 4) 2 2.5 ± 0.7(2–3; 2) 2.8 ± 1.4(1–8; 42)      
Throat speckles 2.8 ± 1.5(1–9; 27) 2.3 ± 2.5(1–9; 12) 3.0 ± 0.9(2–4; 8) 2.7 ± 1.2(2–4; 3) 3.8 ± 2.5(1–7; 4) 3 4.0 ± 1.4(3–5; 2) 5.9 ± 2.2(2–9; 42)    ** *** ***
Breast ground color 4.2 ± 2.6(1–9; 27) 2.4 ± 2.5(1–9; 12) 5.9 ± 1.8(4–9; 8) 7.3 ± 3.6(4–10; 3) 3 ± 0.0(4) 3 4.5 ± 2.1(3–6; 2) 3.4 ± 2.2(1–9; 42) *   **   **
Breast speckling 2.7 ± 1.5(1–6; 27) 1.7 ± 1.0(0–4; 12) 3.4 ± 1.2(2–5; 8) 2.3 ± 0.6(2–3; 3) 1.8 ± 0.5(1–2; 4) 3 4.5 ± 2.2(3–6; 2) 7.0 ± 2.1(2–9; 42) *   ** *** ***
Upper flank markings 1 ± 0(23) 1.3 ± 0.50(1–2; 4) 1.0 ± 0(8) 1 ± 0.0(3) 1 ± 0.0(4) 1 1 ± 0.0(2) 4.9 ± 1.8(1–8; 39)     *** ***
Flank color 4.1 ± 1.9(2–8; 27) 4.7 ± 1.5(2–6; 12) 4.0 ± 2.4(2–9; 8) 2.3 ± 0.6(2–3; 3) 2.5 ± 0.6(2–3; 4) 2 2.5 ± 0.7(2–3; 2) 5.6 ± 1.8(2–9; 42)     ** *
Undertail coverts color 4.5 ± 1.5(2–8; 26) 5.5 ± 1.7(2–8; 12) 4.0 ± 2.4(1–7; 7) 1.7 ± 0.6(1–2; 3) 1.8 ± 0.5(1–2; 4) 5 2.5 ± 0.7(2–3; 2) 8.4 ± 1.0(5–9; 39) *    *** ***
Undertail covert tip contrast 5.4 ± 1.0(4–7; 25) 5.8 ± 1.0(4–7; 12) 6.1 ± 1.1(5–8; 7) 5.0 ± 1.7(3–10; 3) 4.0 ± 0.8(3–5; 4) 7 4.0 ± 1.4(3–5; 2) 6.4 ± 1.8(2–8; 38)     ***  
Undertail covert tip breadth 6.4 ± 0.9(5–8; 25) 6.1 ± 1.3(5.0–9.0; 12) 6.9 ± 1.6(5–9; 7) 6.7 ± 3.5(3–10; 3) 7.5 ± 1.3(6–9; 4) 7 3 ± 0.0(2) 5.4 ± 1.9(2–8; 38)      
Leg color 2.2 ± 1.2(1–6; 26) 3.8 ± 2.0(1–7; 12) 2.6 ± 1.1(1–4; 7) 1.7 ± 0.6(1–2; 3) 1.8 ± 1.0(1–3; 4) 3 1 ± 0.0(2) 5.5 ± 1.7(2–9; 40) *    *** ***
  1. L = length, w = width, d = depth. All measurements in mm. Primaries numbered ascendantly. Sexes are pooled. Bonferroni-adjusted significant differences (pooled variances) are from two-sample t-tests between L. m. mandelli and L. m. melanorhyncha (* = p ≤ 0.05; ** = p ≤ 0.01; *** = p ≤ 0.001); no statistical tests were done for samples with n < 7.