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Table 1 Architectural properties of forelimb muscles in the Golden Pheasant

From: Muscle architecture of the forelimb of the Golden Pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) (Aves: Phasianidae) and its implications for functional capacity in flight

Muscle Abbreviation Muscle mass (g) Fascicle length (cm) Belly length (cm) Volume (cm 3 ) PCSA (cm 2 ) Force (N)
M. pectoralis PT 28.830 ± 10.956 2.439 ± 0.155 9.216 ± 3.200 27.198 11.152 334.552
M. supracoracoideus SC 8.495 ± 3.547 2.330 ± 0.601 10.141 ± 0.520 8.014 3.632 108.951
M. scapulohumeralis caudalis SHC 2.771 ± 1.143 1.686 ± 0.480 4.676 ± 0.506 2.614 1.611 48.334
M. coracobrachialis caudalis CBC 1.101 ± 0.397 1.031 ± 0.321 3.582 ± 0.342 1.039 1.065 31.954
M. subcoracoideus SUC 0.985 ± 0.396 1.192 ± 0.382 2.844 ± 0.473 0.929 0.858 25.753
M. subscapularis SS 0.177 ± 0.065 0.487 ± 0.056 1.434 ± 0.244 0.167 0.339 10.177
M. latissimus dorsi pars cranialis LDCR 0.126 ± 0.029 2.080 ± 0.351 3.245 ± 0.486 0.119 0.058 1.729
M. latissimus dorsi pars caudalis LDCA 0.387 ± 0.203 2.238 ± 0.212 3.237 ± 0.396 0.365 0.162 4.870
M. rhomboideus superficialis RS 0.247 ± 0.115 0.773 ± 0.204 1.100 ± 0.215 0.233 0.291 8.742
M. rhomboideus profundus RP 0.263 ± 0.139 0.670 ± 0.189 0.730 ± 0.095 0.248 0.359 10.755
M. serratus superficialis pars caudalis SSC 0.217 ± 0.081 0.914 ± 0.213 1.796 ± 0.273 0.205 0.232 6.956
M. serratus superficialis pars metapatagialis SSM 0.123 ± 0.031 4.044 ± 0.643 5.222 ± 0.814 0.116 0.029 0.866
M. serratus profundus SP 0.067 ± 0.031 0.566 ± 0.144 0.795 ± 0.277 0.063 0.115 3.436
M. scapulohumeralis cranialis SHA 0.017 ± 0.004 0.560 ± 0.243 0.968 ± 0.298 0.016 0.031 0.935
M. sternocoracoideus STC 0.073 ± 0.059 0.396 ± 0.021 0.600 ± 0.118 0.068 0.171 5.142
M. serratus superficialis pars cranialis SSA 0.047 ± 0.015 1.113 ± 0.221 1.810 ± 0.351 0.044 0.040 1.191
M. triceps brachii humeral head TH 1.331 ± 0.490 1.220 ± 0.137 5.173 ± 0.277 1.256 1.022 30.672
M. triceps brachii scapular head TS 1.076 ± 0.439 1.503 ± 0.390 5.250 ± 0.298 1.015 0.675 20.236
M. biceps brachii BB 0.850 ± 0.449 1.293 ± 0.772 4.048 ± 0.670 0.802 0.846 25.387
M. deltoideus major DMA 0.719 ± 0.254 2.174 ± 0.120 3.910 ± 0.346 0.678 0.316 9.478
M. tensor propatagialis TP 0.398 ± 0.176 2.009 ± 0.228 2.860 ± 0.248 0.375 0.204 6.112
M. deltoideus minor DMI 0.062 ± 0.017 0.460 ± 0.141 0.983 ± 0.246 0.058 0.136 4.069
M. expansor secondariorum ES 0.057 ± 0.020 0.277 ± 0.083 0.654 ± 0.076 0.054 0.195 5.836
M. brachialis BR 0.038 ± 0.009 0.640 ± 0.163 1.239 ± 0.272 0.036 0.058 1.732
M. extensor metacarpi radialis EMR 0.614 ± 0.284 0.871 ± 0.148 3.981 ± 0.243 0.580 0.648 19.426
M. pronator superficialis PS 0.351 ± 0.112 0.644 ± 0.097 3.550 ± 0.079 0.332 0.509 15.282
M. pronator profundus PP 0.297 ± 0.101 0.915 ± 0.332 2.997 ± 0.294 0.280 0.326 9.772
M. flexor carpi ulnaris FCU 0.469 ± 0.293 0.541 ± 0.092 3.670 ± 0.157 0.442 0.804 24.129
M. flexor digitorum profundus FDP 0.251 ± 0.091 0.874 ± 0.236 3.541 ± 0.289 0.237 0.283 8.477
M. extensor carpi ulnaris ECU 0.172 ± 0.067 0.642 ± 0.114 3.421 ± 0.257 0.163 0.263 7.897
M. ectepicondylo ulnaris ECTU 0.205 ± 0.079 0.507 ± 0.280 4.223 ± 0.230 0.193 0.501 15.023
M. extensor longus alulae ELA 0.158 ± 0.067 1.440 ± 0.566 3.949 ± 0.277 0.149 0.104 3.135
M. supinator SU 0.089 ± 0.034 0.410 ± 0.083 2.485 ± 0.485 0.084 0.201 6.035
M. extensor longus digiti majoris ELDM 0.088 ± 0.037 0.819 ± 0.244 2.406 ± 0.270 0.083 0.101 3.025
M. entepicondylo ulnaris ENU 0.077 ± 0.042 0.395 ± 0.114 2.166 ± 0.181 0.072 0.185 5.552
M. ulnometacarpalis ventralis UV 0.092 ± 0.032 0.780 ± 0.196 2.259 ± 0.296 0.087 0.118 3.542
M. ulnometacarpalis dorsalis UD 0.076 ± 0.026 0.663 ± 0.134 1.245 ± 0.359 0.071 0.106 3.179
M. extensor digitorum communis EDC 0.070 ± 0.024 0.790 ± 0.164 3.163 ± 0.184 0.066 0.084 2.532
M. flexor digitorum superficialis FDS 0.063 ± 0.017 0.654 ± 0.014 1.809 ± 0.244 0.060 0.091 2.739
M. abductor digiti majoris ABDM 0.043 ± 0.025 0.259 ± 0.056 2.098 ± 0.198 0.041 0.157 4.712
M. interosseus dorsalis ID 0.034 ± 0.009 0.271 ± 0.074 1.430 ± 0.203 0.032 0.120 3.613
M. interosseus ventralis IV 0.027 ± 0.015 0.282 ± 0.116 1.482 ± 0.273 0.025 0.095 2.836
M. abductor alulae ABA 0.034 ± 0.019 0.436 ± 0.158 0.999 ± 0.183 0.032 0.080 2.410
M. adductor alulae ADA 0.012 ± 0.004 0.390 ± 0.180 0.626 ± 0.135 0.012 0.034 1.011
M. extensor brevis alulae EBA 0.007 ± 0.005 0.243 ± 0.116 0.537 ± 0.055 0.007 0.030 0.905
M. flexor alulae FA 0.004 ± 0.002 0.198 ± 0.048 0.428 ± 0.185 0.004 0.020 0.589
M. flexor digiti minoris FDMI 0.011 ± 0.006 0.164 ± 0.032 1.588 ± 0.344 0.010 0.064 1.912