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Table 3 Saxaul Sparrow parent action frequency in the nestling period

From: Male parent birds exert more effort to reproduce in two desert passerines

Parents’ behaviours Female Male 95% CI P
Feeding 23.31  ±  2.520 29.33  ±  2.518 − 10.110 to − 1.932 0.005
Warning 4.73  ±  0.733 14.02  ±  1.578 − 11.860 to − 6.724 < 0.001
Faeces-clearing 3.92  ±  0.610 1.96  ±  0.365 0.678‒3.239 0.003
Preening 0.23  ±  0.150 0.77  ±  0.202 − 1.060 to − 0.023) 0.041
Chirping 0.06  ±  0.46 1.02  ±  0.280 − 1.523 to − 0.393) 0.001
Waiting 0.38  ±  0.145 1.31  ±  0.302 − 1.444 to − 0.431) 0.001