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Table 1 Frequencies of Saxaul Sparrow parental actions in the nesting period

From: Male parent birds exert more effort to reproduce in two desert passerines

Parents’ behaviours Female Male 95% CI P
Nesting 3.82  ±  0.498 3.92  ±  0.486 − 1.531–1.331 0.889
Nest inspecting 0.78  ±  0.179 1.08  ±  0.151 − 0.749‒0.149 0.186
Nest tidying 1.48  ±  0.207 2.26  ±  0.180 − 1.288 to − 0.272 0.003
Preening 0.76  ±  0.109 1.84  ±  0.184 − 1.473 to − 0.687 < 0.001
Chirping 0.66  ±  0.127 2.74  ±  0.252 − 2.580 to − 1.580 < 0.001
Expelling 0.02  ±  0.020 0.06  ±  0.034 − 0.120‒0.040 0.322
Warning 3.02  ±  0.247 4.00  ±  0.270 − 1.677 to − 0.283 0.007
  1. P values at significant levels are shown in italics, which applies also to Tables 2, 3, 4