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Table 3 ANOVA and Tukey’s test of environmental and biotic variables among three zones of the study area, El Quimbo hydroelectric project, Huila, Colombia, 2018–2019

From: Variation in abundance and habitat relationship of three understory insectivorous birds in a disturbed landscape of Neotropical dry forest of Colombia

  Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 ANOVA Tukey’s test
Relative humidity (%)
 Mean 70.75 69.1 59.48 F2,183 = 20.93, P < 0.01 1–3/2–3
 SE 1.19 1.49 1.29
Elevation (m)
 Mean 1000.08 819.06 778.23 F2,183 = 142.23, P < 0.01 1–3/2–3/1–2
 SE 12.78 10.81 3.71
Slope (%)
 Mean 27.59 25.16 36.01 F2,183 = 7.83, P < 0.01 1–3/3–2
 SE 1.97 1.75 2.51
Shrubland area (ha)
 Mean 3.89 2.73 1.36 F2,183 = 23.72, P < 0.01 1–3/2–3/1–2
 SE 0.28 0.29 0.21
Forest area (ha)
 Mean 2.26 1.88 0.44 F2,183 = 15.63, P < 0.01 1–3/3–2
 SE 0.30 0.27 0.13
Edge (m)
 Mean 482.93 807.34 574.45 F2,183 = 3.92, P < 0.05 1–2
 SE 73.1 108.51 65.55
  1. Tukey’s test numbers refer to significant differences between zones.
  2. SE standard error