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Table 1 Generalized linear model (GLM) with normal distribution and identity link function test showing the effects of different environmental factors on avian richness pattern in Mardi Himal trekking route

From: Correlates of avifaunal diversity along the elevational gradient of Mardi Himal in Annapurna Conservation Area, Central Nepal

Season Environmental factor Slope (a) Intercept (b) P value
Summer Area 0.125 8.348 0.001
Distance to the nearest water source − 0.004 22.564 0.015
Distance to the nearest settlement − 0.007 18.8 0.147
Mean precipitation 0.041 0.094 < 0.001
Mean temperature 1.734 − 18.478 0.015
Winter Area 0.132 8.229 0.003
Distance to the nearest water source − 0.003 21 0.109
Distance to the nearest settlement − 0.003 17.417 0.57
Mean precipitation − 1.676 41.096 < 0.001
Mean temperature 1.487 2.175 0.018
NDVI − 7.727 21.162 0.057
Small-ranged species Area 0.086 2.63 0.003
Distance to the nearest water source − 0.002 12.09 0.024
Distance to the nearest settlement − 0.004 9.394 0.274
Mean precipitation (summer) 0.052 1.164 0.366
Mean precipitation (winter) − 0.772 16.15 < 0.001
Mean temperature (summer) 0.579 − 8.33 0.037
Mean temperature (winter) 0.64 − 1.45 0.051
NDVI (winter) − 3.28 6.78 0.65
Large-ranged species Area 0.138 8.62 0.005
Distance to the nearest water source − 0.003 22.53 0.093
Distance to the nearest settlement − 0.004 18.53 0.511
Mean precipitation (summer) 0.253 − 0.95 0.004
Mean precipitation (winter) − 0.95 22.44 < 0.001
Mean temperature (summer) 0.92 − 9.67 0.073
Mean temperature (winter) 0.706 1.58 0.039
NDVI (winter) − 4.51 11.14 0.55
  1. Values marked in italics are statistically significant at P < 0.05