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Table 2 The intra- and interspecific aggressive interactions given and received by each focal waterbird species

From: Aggressive behavioural interactions between swans (Cygnus spp.) and other waterbirds during winter: a webcam-based study

Species Interaction nIntra nInter nTotal PIntra PIntra 95% CI PInter PInter 95% CI P value
Bewick’s Swan To other 245 171 416 0.589 0.540–0.637 0.411 0.363–0.460 0.003
  From other 245 68 313 0.783 0.733–0.827 0.217 0.173–0.267 < 0.001
Mute Swan To other 364 155 519 0.701 0.660–0.740 0.299 0.260–0.340 < 0.001
  From other 364 35 399 0.912 0.880–0.938 0.088 0.062–0.120 < 0.001
Whooper Swan To other 137 34 171 0.801 0.733–0.858 0.199 0.142–0.267 < 0.001
  From other 137 83 220 0.623 0.555–0.687 0.377 0.313–0.445 0.003
Canada Goose To other 190 55 245 0.776 0.718–0.826 0.224 0.174–0.282 < 0.001
  From other 190 45 235 0.809 0.752–0.857 0.191 0.143–0.248 < 0.001
Greylag Goose To other 39 15 54 0.722 0.584–0.835 0.278 0.165–0.416 0.012
  From other 39 7 46 0.848 0.711–0.937 0.152 0.063–0.289 < 0.001
Common Shelduck To other 2 3 5 0.400 0.053–0.853 0.600 0.147–0.947 1.000
  From other 2 0 2 1.000 0.158–1.000 0.000 0.000–0.842 1.000
Northern Mallard To other 240 96 336 0.714 0.663–0.762 0.286 0.238–0.337 < 0.001
  From other 240 136 376 0.638 0.587–0.687 0.362 0.313–0.413 < 0.001
Northern Pintail To other 356 110 466 0.764 0.723–0.802 0.236 0.198–0.277 < 0.001
  From other 356 171 527 0.676 0.634–0.715 0.324 0.285–0.366 < 0.001
Eurasian Teal To other 146 39 185 0.789 0.723–0.846 0.211 0.154–0.277 < 0.001
  From other 146 74 220 0.664 0.597–0.726 0.336 0.274–0.403 < 0.001
Tufted Duck To other 152 40 192 0.792 0.727–0.847 0.208 0.153–0.273 < 0.001
  From other 152 51 203 0.749 0.683–0.807 0.251 0.193–0.317 < 0.001
Common Pochard To other 10 5 15 0.667 0.384–0.882 0.333 0.118–0.616 1.000
  From other 10 2 12 0.833 0.516–0.979 0.167 0.021–0.484 0.270
Eurasian Coot To other 61 40 101 0.604 0.502–0.700 0.396 0.300–0.498 0.276
  From other 61 66 127 0.480 0.391–0.571 0.520 0.429–0.609 1.000
Common Moorhen To other 102 25 127 0.803 0.723–0.868 0.197 0.132–0.277 < 0.001
  From other 102 41 143 0.713 0.632–0.786 0.287 0.214–0.368 < 0.001
Gull spp. To other 19 0 19 1.000 0.824–1.000 0.000 0.000–0.176 < 0.001
  From other 19 11 30 0.633 0.439–0.801 0.367 0.199–0.561 1.000
  1. A comparison of the proportions of intraspecific (PIntra) and interspecific (PInter) aggressive interactions given and received by each focal waterbird species. All P values associated with our binomial tests were adjusted using Holm-Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons. Total numbers of interactions (n) are also indicated