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Table 1 Statistical results of flight-related morphology, load-lifting capacity, flight kinematics, flight speed and energy efficiency between Fringilla montifringilla (Brambling, BRAM; n = 8) and Passer montanus (Eurasian Tree Sparrow, TRSP; n = 13) in independent t-tests or Mann–Whitney U tests

From: A comparison of flight energetics and kinematics of migratory Brambling and residential Eurasian Tree Sparrow

Type of variable Variable t value P value
Flight-related morphology Body mass (g) 0.569 0.576
Wing length (mm) 16.69 < 0.001
Wing area (cm2) 6.158 < 0.001
Wing loading (N/m2) 4.326 < 0.001
Aspect ratio 5.024 < 0.001
Load-lifting capacity Maximum load (g) 1.321 0.202
Mass-corrected maximum load 2.040 0.056
Maximum wing loading (N/m2) 4.326 < 0.001
Flight kinematics Wingbeat frequency (Hz) 6.627 < 0.001
Wing stroke amplitude (deg) 2.691 0.015
Flight performance Maximum vertical speed (m/s) 0.625 0.540
Maximum vertical acceleration (m/s2) 0.171 0.866
Power margin 0.641 0.529
Maximum range speed (Vmr, m/s) 8.298 < 0.001
Maximum speed (Vmax, m/s) 8.176 < 0.001
Flight energy efficiency Power at Vmr (W)a 5.914 < 0.001
Power at Vmax (W) 6.266 < 0.001
Mass-corrected power at Vmr (W/kg) 6.669 < 0.001
Mass-corrected power at Vmax (W/kg) 7.228 < 0.001
Parasitic drag at Vmr (N) 5.972 < 0.001
Parasitic drag at Vmax (N) 5.817 < 0.001
Reynolds number at Vmr 3.336 0.003
Reynolds number at Vmax 3.411 0.003
Mass-corrected power cost per 100 km at Vmr (Wh/kg)a 7.901 < 0.001
Mass-corrected power cost per 100 km at Vmax (Wh/kg) 9.544 < 0.001
  1. Italic values indicate significance of P value (P < 0.05)
  2. aVariables were compared by the Mann–Whitney U test