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Table 3 Relationships of body mass or wing length with each environmental variable

From: Bergmann’s rule and Allen’s rule in two passerine birds in China

Species Trait Sex (n) Parameter Latitude Elevation bio1 bio4 bio5 bio6 bio7 bio10 bio11 bio12 bio15 bio18 bio19
Pica serica Body mass Male (80) p ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns
R 2              
Female (81) p ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns
R 2              
Wing length Male (82) p ns 0.030 ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns
R 2   0.056            
Female (83) p ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns
R 2              
Parus minor Body mass Male (269) p ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns
R 2              
Female (133) p ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns
R 2              
Wing length Male (266) p < 0.001 0.0108 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
R 2 0.389 0.057 0.325 0.264 0.179 0.382 0.286 0.213 0.365 0.385 0.245 0.123 0.260
Female (131) p < 0.001 ns < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.021 < 0.001
R 2 0.441   0.343 0.254 0.243 0.365 0.236 0.252 0.357 0.356 0.374 0.072 0.309
  1. ns no significant, bio1 annual mean temperature, bio4 temperature seasonality, bio5 maximum temperature of warmest month, bio6 minimum temperature of coldest month, bio7 temperature annual range, bio10 mean temperature of warmest quarter, bio11 mean temperature of coldest quarter, bio12 annual precipitation, bio15 precipitation seasonality, bio18 precipitation of warmest quarter, bio19 precipitation of coldest quarter