Skip to main content

Table 3 Results of a weighted mixed-model meta-analysis assessing how the slope (z) of the power species-area relationship model varies between urban green areas in different cities, in relation to continuous and categorical moderator variables

From: A global consistent positive effect of urban green area size on bird richness

Variable Q df P Fail-safe number
Population 0.01 45 0.378 3069
Foundation 1.98 45 0.068 3128
Latitude 5.94 45 0.961 3317
Season 1.51 45 0.512 3093
Biomea 8.77 43 0.334 2984
Methodology aspects 1.14 45 0.600 2999
Bird survey method 5.71 42 0.098 1918
Range of area size 0.32 45 0.176 3105
Minimum area size 0.03 45 0.296 3129
Maximum area size 0.65 45 0.114 3134
Number of green areasb 0.50 45 0.561 3032
Isolation 1 0.05 34 0.289 764
Isolation 2b 0.10 37 0.083 1027
Migrants 0.10 36 0.748 1813
Ground nester 5.11 36 0.978 1897
Body size 0.01 36 0.933 1831
Minimum bird richness 1.08 45 0.139 3215
Maximum bird richness 0.05 45 0.139 3115
Bird richness range 0.59 45 0.725 3075
  1. The Q test (Q), degrees of freedom (df), P values and the fail-safe numbers are shown
  2. aBiomes with only a single case study were excluded from the analysis
  3. bTest performed after excluding a case study with exceptional distance to rural areas