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Table 2 Results of a weighted mixed-model meta-analysis assessing how the fit rZ of the power model species-area relationship varies between urban green areas in different cities, in relation to continuous and categorical moderator variables

From: A global consistent positive effect of urban green area size on bird richness

Variable Q df P Fail-safe number
Population 0.32 48 0.248 5148
Foundation 0.17 48 0.618 4979
Latitude 0.20 48 0.664 4865
Season 0.10 48 0.957 4878
Biomea 7.84 46 0.419 4313
Methodology aspects 1.02 48 0.593 4971
Bird survey method 1.19 46 0.772 4273
Range of area size 0.06 48 0.336 4946
Minimum area size 1.10 48 0.196 5044
Maximum area size 0.22 48 0.253 4964
Number of green areas 0.06 48 0.328 4905
Isolation1 0.01 35 0.565 1654
Isolation2 3.45 38 0.987 2434
Migrants 0.69 38 0.865 3003
Ground nester 3.71 38 0.968 3236
Body size 0.12 38 0.733 2992
Minimum bird richness 0.73 47 0.697 4439
Maximum bird richness 1.44 47 0.854 4384
Bird richness range 1.21 47 0.801 4302
  1. The Q test (Q), degrees of freedom (df), P values and the fail-safe numbers are depicted
  2. aBiomes with only a single case study were excluded from the analysis