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Table 2 Nested ANOVAs testing the variation of diurnal activities of the Shelduck wintering in Sabkha Djendli in northeastern Algeria across a range of temporal scales

From: Are diurnal time-budgets and activity patterns density-dependent in the Shelduck (Tadorna tadorna) wintering in Algeria? An analysis across multiple temporal scales

Time variations df Feeding Sleeping Preening Swimming
MS F p MS F p MS F p MS F p
Year (YY) 1 7757 87.6 < 0.001 196.8 27.9 < 0.001 702.0 215.5 < 0.001 21.5 10.4 0.002
Season (SS) 1 4786 54.1 < 0.001 707.4 100.3 < 0.001 9.0 2.8 0.100 6.4 3.1 0.081
Month (MM) 3 929 10.5 < 0.001 117.0 16.6 < 0.001 208.5 64.0 < 0.001 113.8 55.0 < 0.001
Day (DD) 2 57 0.6 0.527 95.0 13.5 < 0.001 14.8 4.6 0.013 30.1 14.5 < 0.001
Semi-hour (SH) 13 1353 15.3 < 0.001 42.2 6.0 < 0.001 79.9 24.5 < 0.001 20.3 9.8 < 0.001
YY × SS 1 964 10.9 0.001 104.2 14.8 < 0.001 29.5 9.1 0.003 107.1 51.7 < 0.001
MM × DD 5 570 6.4 < 0.001 121.6 17.2 < 0.001 12.9 3.9 0.003 112.7 54.4 < 0.001
YY × SS × MM 2 933 10.5 < 0.001 68.9 9.8 < 0.001 9.2 2.8 0.064 51.6 24.9 < 0.001
MM × DD × SH 143 123 1.4 0.038 12.6 1.8 < 0.001 6.7 2.1 < 0.001 3.6 1.8 0.001
Residuals 108 89    7.1    3.3    2.1   
Time variations df Loafing Courtship Antagonism Flying
MS F p MS F p MS F p MS F p
Year (YY) 1 70.9 77.2 < 0.001 0.0 0.0 0.999 1.3 2.3 0.133 42.4 48.1 < 0.001
Season (SS) 1 5.5 6.0 0.016 15.1 53.5 < 0.001 0.0 0.0 0.914 58.5 66.3 < 0.001
Month (MM) 3 45.2 49.3 < 0.001 3.8 13.4 < 0.001 1.3 2.3 0.079 14.0 15.8 < 0.001
Day (DD) 2 12.3 13.4 < 0.001 0.1 0.3 0.751 0.0 0.0 0.959 4.7 5.3 0.006
Semi-hour (SH) 13 14.8 16.1 < 0.001 3.6 12.6 < 0.001 6.5 11.3 < 0.001 6.4 7.3 < 0.001
YY × SS 1 2.6 2.8 0.095 0.5 1.8 0.184 0.3 0.6 0.442 6.0 6.8 0.011
MM × DD 5 2.3 2.5 0.032 1.2 4.2 0.001 1.3 2.3 0.051 4.0 4.5 < 0.001
YY × SS × MM 2 4.6 5.0 0.009 1.6 5.6 0.005 0.8 1.3 0.268 0.4 0.4 0.655
MM × DD × SH 143 3.7 4.0 < 0.001 0.9 3.1 < 0.001 1.3 2.2 < 0.001 4.7 5.3 < 0.001
Residuals 108 0.9    0.3    0.6    0.9   
  1. df degrees of freedom, MS mean squares, F F-statistics, p p-value