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Table 3 Principal component analysis of song variables of Brachypteryx montana cruralis, B. m. sinensis, and B. m. goodfellowi

From: Taxonomy of the White-browed Shortwing (Brachypteryx montana) complex on mainland Asia and Taiwan: an integrative approach supports recognition of three instead of one species

  PCA1 PCA2 PCA3 PCA4
Duration of strophe (s) 0.879 − 0.003 0.348 0.192
Number of elements in strophe 0.880 − 0.176 0.357 0.100
Number of distinct elements in strophe 0.898 − 0.069 0.332 0.109
Rate − 0.003 − 0.852 0.093 − 0.272
Maximum frequency of strophe (Hz) 0.828 0.337 0.348 0.039
Minimum frequency of strophe (Hz) − 0.706 0.525 0.284 − 0.197
Mean frequency (Hz) 0.467 0.630 0.510 − 0.066
Bandwidth (Hz) 0.947 0.048 0.157 0.113
Peak frequency of strophe (Hz) 0.327 − 0.106 0.681 0.353
Maximum element duration (s) 0.438 0.087 0.013 0.850
Minimum element duration (s) − 0.311 0.759 − 0.367 − 0.025
Maximum element bandwidth (Hz) 0.901 0.012 − 0.038 0.153
Minimum element bandwidth (Hz) − 0.337 − 0.069 − 0.725 0.289
Duration of first element (s) 0.044 0.051 0.002 0.931
Duration of last element (s) 0.438 0.614 − 0.107 0.338
Peak frequency of first element (Hz) 0.753 − 0.131 0.387 0.151
Peak frequency of last element (Hz) − 0.136 0.777 0.283 − 0.189
Eigenvalue 6.751 3.15 2.22 2.185
% Variance explained 39.713 18.529 13.061 12.852