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Table 1 Univariate statistics for external measurements (mm) of skin specimens of Brachypteryx montana cruralis, B. m. sinensis, and B. m. goodfellowi

From: Taxonomy of the White-browed Shortwing (Brachypteryx montana) complex on mainland Asia and Taiwan: an integrative approach supports recognition of three instead of one species

Variable Males Females
cruralis sinensis goodfellowi cruralis sinensis goodfellowi
Culmen from skull 16.1 ± 0.4** (15.0–16.7, 13) 15.2 ± 0.7 (14.2–17.0, 20) 16.3 ± 0.5 (15.7–16.7, 3) 16.0 ± 0.8 ns (14.4–17.6, 22) 15.5 ± 0.8 (14.0–17.0, 18) 16.4 ± 0.5 (16.0–16.9, 3)
Culmen from feathers 11.8 ± 0.7** (11.0–12.0, 13) 10.7 ± 0.4 (10.0–11.4, 20) 11.2 ± 0.3 (11.0–11.5, 3) 11.7 ± 0.7* (10.5–12.9, 23) 10.9 ± 0.7 (10.1–13.0, 18) 11.5 ± 0.5 (11.4–11.6, 3)
Bill width 2.9 ± 0.2 ns (2.6–3.3, 13) 2.8 ± 0.3 (2.2–3.3, 22) 3.0 ± 0.2 (2.7–3.1, 3) 2.9 ± 0.2 ns (2.6–3.4, 24) 3.0 ± 0.2 (2.7–3.5, 18) 3.2 ± 0.2 (3.0–3.3, 3)
Bill depth 3.5 ± 0.2*** (3.3–3.8, 11) 3.1 ± 0.3 (2.6–3.8, 19) 3.2 ± 0.2 (3.0–3.3, 3) 3.4 ± 0.1 ns (3.2–3.6, 22) 3.3 ± 0.2 (3.1–3.6, 14) 3.4 ± 0.2 (3.2–3.5, 3)
Wing length 66.7 ± 2.2 ns (63.0–72.0, 13) 65.3 ± 1.6 (62.0–68.0, 22) 65.8 ± 1.8 (64.0–67.5, 3) 64.3 ± 2.0 ns (61.0–69.0, 27) 63.4 ± 2.3 (59.0–66.5, 21) 65.3 ± 4.7 (60.0–69.0, 3)
Secondary length 57.3 ± 2.9*** (53.0–62.0, 9) 63.3 ± 3.1 (58.0–67.0, 22) 60.3 ± 2.5 (58.0–63.0, 3) 55.7 ± 2.4*** (52.0–61.0, 15) 61.2 ± 2.8 (55.0–65.0, 21) 57.0 ± 4.4 (52.0–60.0, 3)
Primary projection 9.4 ± 1.3 ns (6.0–11.0, 13) 8.3 ± 2.0 (5.0–12.0, 22) 5.7 ± 0.6 (5.0–6.0, 3) 8.3 ± 1.1 ns (6.0–11.0, 27) 7.3 ± 1.9 (4.0–11.0, 21) 8.3 ± 0.6 (8.0–9.0, 3)
Primary 1 length 22.7 ± 1.1** (21.0–25.0, 13) 20.7 ± 1.5 (18.0–23.0, 22) 22.2 ± 1.3 (21.0–23.5, 3) 21.8 ± 1.7*** (19.0–25.0, 27) 19.9 ± 1.4 (24.0–30.0, 21) 21.0 ± 1.0 (20.0–22.0, 3)
Primary 1 shortfall 27.4 ± 1.8 ns (24.0–29.0, 13) 28.3 ± 1.6 (25.0–32.0, 22) 26.3 ± 1.2 (25.0–27.0, 3) 25.8 ± 2.1 ns (23.0–30.3, 26) 2.75 ± 1.8 (24.0–30.0, 21) 27.0 ± 2.0 (25.0–29.0, 3)
Primary 2 shortfall 11.9 ± 1.4 ns (9.0–14.0, 13) 12.1 ± 1.2 (10.0–14.0, 20) 12.7 ± 0.6 (12.0–13.0, 3) 11.5 ± 1.5 ns (9.0–15.0, 26) 11.4 ± 0.7 (10.0–13.0, 21) 13.0 ± 1.7 (12.0–15.0, 3)
Primary 3 shortfall 4.6 ± 0.9 ns (3.0–6.0, 13) 4.2 ± 0.8 (3.0–6.0, 22) 5.0 ± 1.0 (4.0–6.0, 3) 4.4 ± 1.1 ns (3.0–6.0, 26) 3.7 ± 0.6 (3.0–5.0, 21) 5.0 ± 1.0 (4.0–6.0, 3)
Primary 4 shortfall 1.4 ± 0.7 ns (0.0–2.0, 13) 1.3 ± 0.4 (1.0–2.0, 22) 1.7 ± 0.6 (1.0–2.0, 3) 1.1 ± 0.7 ns (0.0–3.0, 26) 0.9 ± 0.5 (0.0–2.0, 19) 1.5 ± 0.9 (0.5–2.0, 3)
Primary 5 shortfall 0.0 ± 0.0 ns (0.0–0.0, 13) 0.02 ± 0.1 (0.0–0.5, 22) 0.0 ± 0.0 (0.0–0.0, 3) 0.0 ± 0.0 ns (0.0–0.0, 26) 0.0 ± 0.0 (0.0–0.0, 19) 0.2 ± 0.3 (0.0–0.5, 3)
Tail length 43.7 ± 4.6** (34.3–49.2, 13) 48.8 ± 2.2 (45.7–52.3, 22) 47.9 ± 0.7 (47.4–48.7, 3) 42.3 ± 2.3*** (37.7–46.7, 27) 46.5 ± 1.8 (43.3–50.2, 21) 46.8 ± 2.5 (44.4–49.4, 3)
Tail graduation 5.8 ± 1.5 ns (3.0–8.0, 12) 4.0 ± 1.6 (0.0–6.0, 20) 7.0 ± 1.0 (6.0–8.0, 3) 5.5 ± 1.6* (3.0–9.0, 26) 4.1 ± 1.3 (2.0–7.0, 20) 8.0 ± 1.0 (7.0–9.0, 3)
Undertail coverts to tail tip 18.9 ± 3.2*** (13.0–24.0, 13) 25.2 ± 1.9 (22.0–29.0, 22) 23.7 ± 0.6 (23.0–24.0, 3) 18.6 ± 2.3*** (15.0–24.0, 27) 22.3 ± 1.8 (18.0–26.0, 21) 22.7 ± 2.1 (21.0–25.0, 3)
Tarsus length 31.5 ± 1.3*** (29.3–34.7, 12) 27.7 ± 0.8 (26.3–29.2, 22) 30.2 ± 1.6 (28.3–31.2, 3) 30.9 ± 1.1*** (28.4–32.9, 27) 27.5 ± 0.9 (25.8–29.3, 21) 31.6 ± 2.4 (29.8–34.3, 3)
Tarsus distal width 3.1 ± 0.1*** (2.9–3.3, 13) 2.8 ± 0.8 (2.1–3.0, 22) 2.9 ± 0.1 (2.8–3.0, 3) 3.1 ± 0.1*** (2.8–3.5, 27) 2.9 ± 0.1 (2.7–3.1, 13) 3.0 ± 0.1 (2.9–3.1, 3)
Hindclaw length 7.9 ± 0.5*** (6.3–8.5, 13) 7.0 ± 0.4 (6.3–7.7, 22) 7.1 ± 0.2 (6.8–7.3, 3) 7.5 ± 0.4*** (6.7–8.3, 26) 6.8 ± 0.4 (6.1–7.7, 21) 7.3 ± 0.2 (7.1–7.5, 3)
  1. Measurements are presented as mean ± SD (range, n). Significance tests (two-sample t-tests: ns = Bonferroni-adjusted p value > 0.05; * = p ≤ 0.05, ** = p ≤ 0.01, *** = p ≤ 0.001) are shown between male B. m. cruralis and male B. m. sinensis (under male cruralis) and between female B. m. cruralis and female B. m. sinensis (under female cruralis)