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Table 1 Univariate statistics for external measurements (mm) of skin specimens of Brachypteryx montana cruralis, B. m. sinensis, and B. m. goodfellowi

From: Taxonomy of the White-browed Shortwing (Brachypteryx montana) complex on mainland Asia and Taiwan: an integrative approach supports recognition of three instead of one species

Variable Males Females
cruralis sinensis goodfellowi cruralis sinensis goodfellowi
Culmen from skull 16.1 ± 0.4**
(15.0–16.7, 13)
15.2 ± 0.7
(14.2–17.0, 20)
16.3 ± 0.5
(15.7–16.7, 3)
16.0 ± 0.8 ns
(14.4–17.6, 22)
15.5 ± 0.8
(14.0–17.0, 18)
16.4 ± 0.5
(16.0–16.9, 3)
Culmen from feathers 11.8 ± 0.7**
(11.0–12.0, 13)
10.7 ± 0.4
(10.0–11.4, 20)
11.2 ± 0.3
(11.0–11.5, 3)
11.7 ± 0.7*
(10.5–12.9, 23)
10.9 ± 0.7
(10.1–13.0, 18)
11.5 ± 0.5
(11.4–11.6, 3)
Bill width 2.9 ± 0.2 ns
(2.6–3.3, 13)
2.8 ± 0.3
(2.2–3.3, 22)
3.0 ± 0.2
(2.7–3.1, 3)
2.9 ± 0.2 ns
(2.6–3.4, 24)
3.0 ± 0.2
(2.7–3.5, 18)
3.2 ± 0.2
(3.0–3.3, 3)
Bill depth 3.5 ± 0.2***
(3.3–3.8, 11)
3.1 ± 0.3
(2.6–3.8, 19)
3.2 ± 0.2
(3.0–3.3, 3)
3.4 ± 0.1 ns
(3.2–3.6, 22)
3.3 ± 0.2
(3.1–3.6, 14)
3.4 ± 0.2
(3.2–3.5, 3)
Wing length 66.7 ± 2.2 ns
(63.0–72.0, 13)
65.3 ± 1.6
(62.0–68.0, 22)
65.8 ± 1.8
(64.0–67.5, 3)
64.3 ± 2.0 ns
(61.0–69.0, 27)
63.4 ± 2.3
(59.0–66.5, 21)
65.3 ± 4.7
(60.0–69.0, 3)
Secondary length 57.3 ± 2.9***
(53.0–62.0, 9)
63.3 ± 3.1
(58.0–67.0, 22)
60.3 ± 2.5
(58.0–63.0, 3)
55.7 ± 2.4***
(52.0–61.0, 15)
61.2 ± 2.8
(55.0–65.0, 21)
57.0 ± 4.4
(52.0–60.0, 3)
Primary projection 9.4 ± 1.3 ns
(6.0–11.0, 13)
8.3 ± 2.0
(5.0–12.0, 22)
5.7 ± 0.6
(5.0–6.0, 3)
8.3 ± 1.1 ns
(6.0–11.0, 27)
7.3 ± 1.9
(4.0–11.0, 21)
8.3 ± 0.6
(8.0–9.0, 3)
Primary 1 length 22.7 ± 1.1**
(21.0–25.0, 13)
20.7 ± 1.5
(18.0–23.0, 22)
22.2 ± 1.3
(21.0–23.5, 3)
21.8 ± 1.7***
(19.0–25.0, 27)
19.9 ± 1.4
(24.0–30.0, 21)
21.0 ± 1.0
(20.0–22.0, 3)
Primary 1 shortfall 27.4 ± 1.8 ns
(24.0–29.0, 13)
28.3 ± 1.6
(25.0–32.0, 22)
26.3 ± 1.2
(25.0–27.0, 3)
25.8 ± 2.1 ns
(23.0–30.3, 26)
2.75 ± 1.8
(24.0–30.0, 21)
27.0 ± 2.0
(25.0–29.0, 3)
Primary 2 shortfall 11.9 ± 1.4 ns
(9.0–14.0, 13)
12.1 ± 1.2
(10.0–14.0, 20)
12.7 ± 0.6
(12.0–13.0, 3)
11.5 ± 1.5 ns
(9.0–15.0, 26)
11.4 ± 0.7
(10.0–13.0, 21)
13.0 ± 1.7
(12.0–15.0, 3)
Primary 3 shortfall 4.6 ± 0.9 ns
(3.0–6.0, 13)
4.2 ± 0.8
(3.0–6.0, 22)
5.0 ± 1.0
(4.0–6.0, 3)
4.4 ± 1.1 ns
(3.0–6.0, 26)
3.7 ± 0.6
(3.0–5.0, 21)
5.0 ± 1.0
(4.0–6.0, 3)
Primary 4 shortfall 1.4 ± 0.7 ns
(0.0–2.0, 13)
1.3 ± 0.4
(1.0–2.0, 22)
1.7 ± 0.6
(1.0–2.0, 3)
1.1 ± 0.7 ns
(0.0–3.0, 26)
0.9 ± 0.5
(0.0–2.0, 19)
1.5 ± 0.9
(0.5–2.0, 3)
Primary 5 shortfall 0.0 ± 0.0 ns
(0.0–0.0, 13)
0.02 ± 0.1
(0.0–0.5, 22)
0.0 ± 0.0
(0.0–0.0, 3)
0.0 ± 0.0 ns
(0.0–0.0, 26)
0.0 ± 0.0
(0.0–0.0, 19)
0.2 ± 0.3
(0.0–0.5, 3)
Tail length 43.7 ± 4.6**
(34.3–49.2, 13)
48.8 ± 2.2
(45.7–52.3, 22)
47.9 ± 0.7
(47.4–48.7, 3)
42.3 ± 2.3***
(37.7–46.7, 27)
46.5 ± 1.8
(43.3–50.2, 21)
46.8 ± 2.5
(44.4–49.4, 3)
Tail graduation 5.8 ± 1.5 ns
(3.0–8.0, 12)
4.0 ± 1.6
(0.0–6.0, 20)
7.0 ± 1.0
(6.0–8.0, 3)
5.5 ± 1.6*
(3.0–9.0, 26)
4.1 ± 1.3
(2.0–7.0, 20)
8.0 ± 1.0
(7.0–9.0, 3)
Undertail coverts to tail tip 18.9 ± 3.2***
(13.0–24.0, 13)
25.2 ± 1.9
(22.0–29.0, 22)
23.7 ± 0.6
(23.0–24.0, 3)
18.6 ± 2.3***
(15.0–24.0, 27)
22.3 ± 1.8
(18.0–26.0, 21)
22.7 ± 2.1
(21.0–25.0, 3)
Tarsus length 31.5 ± 1.3***
(29.3–34.7, 12)
27.7 ± 0.8
(26.3–29.2, 22)
30.2 ± 1.6
(28.3–31.2, 3)
30.9 ± 1.1***
(28.4–32.9, 27)
27.5 ± 0.9
(25.8–29.3, 21)
31.6 ± 2.4
(29.8–34.3, 3)
Tarsus distal width 3.1 ± 0.1***
(2.9–3.3, 13)
2.8 ± 0.8
(2.1–3.0, 22)
2.9 ± 0.1
(2.8–3.0, 3)
3.1 ± 0.1***
(2.8–3.5, 27)
2.9 ± 0.1
(2.7–3.1, 13)
3.0 ± 0.1
(2.9–3.1, 3)
Hindclaw length 7.9 ± 0.5***
(6.3–8.5, 13)
7.0 ± 0.4
(6.3–7.7, 22)
7.1 ± 0.2
(6.8–7.3, 3)
7.5 ± 0.4***
(6.7–8.3, 26)
6.8 ± 0.4
(6.1–7.7, 21)
7.3 ± 0.2
(7.1–7.5, 3)
  1. Measurements are presented as mean ± SD (range, n). Significance tests (two-sample t-tests: ns = Bonferroni-adjusted p value > 0.05; * = p ≤ 0.05, ** = p ≤ 0.01, *** = p ≤ 0.001) are shown between male B. m. cruralis and male B. m. sinensis (under male cruralis) and between female B. m. cruralis and female B. m. sinensis (under female cruralis)