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Table 1 Procrustes ANOVA for the shape of the black area in tails of Great Grey Shrikes (Lanius excubitor), Museum of Natural History, Leiden, the Netherlands

From: A tale of two tails: asymmetry in Great Grey Shrike (Lanius excubitor)

Effect Sums of squares Mean square df F p
Females
 Individuala 0.1945 0.0001 1890 10.95 0.0001*
 Sideb 0.0008 0.0000 70 1.23 0.0997
 Ind × sidec 0.0178 0.0000 1890 4.71 0.0001*
 Errord 0.0078 0.0000 3920   
Males
 Individuala 0.2670 0.0001 2380 6.36 0.0001*
 Sideb 0.0018 0.0000 70 1.46 0.0078*
 Ind × sidec 0.0420 0.0000 2380 6.74 0.0001*
 Errord 0.0128 0.0000 4900   
  1. *Significant differences, p < 0.05
  2. aThe variation between individuals
  3. bDirectional asymmetry
  4. cFluctuating asymmetry
  5. dThe residual variation due to measurement error