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Table 1 Variables that were used to characterize core breeding territory habitat sites (20 m × 20 m) and unused sites of male Chinese Grouse, at Lianhuashan, Gansu, China, 2009–2012

From: The importance of willow to the Chinese Grouse: evidence from analysis on their breeding territories at Lianhuashan, China

Variable Definition
Slope aspect Slope aspect in °
Slope gradient Slope gradient in °
Distance to edge Length between forest and gaps/clearance in m
Distance to water Length between forest and creek/water hole
Tall deciduous trees Number of deciduous trees (≥ 5 m) per ha
Small deciduous trees Number of deciduous trees and bushes (height: ≥ 0.5 m, < 5 m) per ha
Tall coniferous trees Number of coniferous trees (≥ 5 m) per ha
Small coniferous trees Number of coniferous trees (height: ≥ 0.5 m, < 5 m) per ha
Tall willow trees Number of willow trees (≥ 5 m) per ha
Small willow trees Number of willow trees (height: ≥ 0.5 m, < 5 m) per ha
Willow cover Area covered by willow trees ≥ 0.5 m, estimated in 10% steps
Rowan trees Number of rowan trees (≥ 0.5 m) per ha
Canopy cover Area covered by crowns, estimated in 10% steps
Shrub cover Area covered by shrub layer (≥ 0.5 m, < 5 m) in 10% steps
Grass cover Area covered by grass, estimated in 10% steps
Herbaceous cover Area covered by herbaceous, estimated in 10% steps
Fern cover Area covered by fern, estimated in 10% steps
Moss cover Area covered by moss, estimated in 10% steps
Stand structure Stand structure in four categories
 1 = one layered
 2 = two layered
 3 = three layered
 4 = multi-layered
Stem structure Stem distribution in four categories
 1 = crowed, defined as canopy closure (≥ 0.8)
 2 = normal, defied as canopy closure (≥ 0.3, < 0.8)
 3 = spare, defined as canopy closure (≥ 0.1, < 0.3)
 4 = grouped, defined as canopy closure (≥ 0, < 0.1)