Skip to main content

Table 5 One-way ANOVAs for the dependence of individual species abundance on the intensity of recreational disturbances at three distances from the trail

From: Response of tropical avifauna to visitor recreational disturbances: a case study from the Sinharaja World Heritage Forest, Sri Lanka

Species Distance from trail (m) Mean number of birds One-way ANOVA Pearson’s correlation
NRD LRD MRD HRD F p r p
Ashy-headed Laughing-thrush 0 4.63a 1.37b 0.08c 0.00c 3.330 0.022* −0.277 0.004*
Garrulax cinereifrons 75 1.37 0.64 0.82 0.95 0.652 0.524 0.032 0.768
  150 0.92 0.82 0.68 0.64 0.108 0.955 0.057 0.572
Black-naped Monarch 0 0.55 0.36 0.50 0.27 1.074 0.364 −0.133 0.176
Hypothymis azurea 75 0.09a 0.30 0.67b 0.56b 7.250 0.000* 0.477 0.000*
  150 0.15 0.36 0.29 0.00 1.477 0.226 0.087 0.399
Brown-breasted Flycatcher 0 0.56a 0.28 0.08b 0.00b 6.120 0.001* −0.390 0.000*
Muscicapa muttui 75 0.24 0.38 0.36 0.25 1.022 0.387 0.068 0.510
  150 0.47 0.69 0.71 0.77 0.547 0.651 0.121 0.238
Brown-headed Barbet 0 0.56 0.36 0.18 0.54 1.210 0.311 −0.092 0.346
Psilopogon zeylanicus 75 0.32 0.54 0.50 0.67 0.858 0.466 0.104 0.105
  150 0.43 0.48 0.64 0.72 1.374 0.255 0.184 0.065
Greater Flameback 0 0.78a 0.55 0.36 0.17b 2.890 0.039* −0.280 0.004*
Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus 75 0.24 0.41 0.28 0.20 0.872 0.460 0.041 0.690
  150 0.28 0.52 0.33 0.78 1.933 0.129 0.182 0.068
Dark-fronted Babbler 0 2.63a 1.96a 0.41b 0.17b 5.045 0.003* −0.352 0.000*
Rhopocichla atriceps 75 0.21 0.36 0.73 0.63 2.011 0.117 0.231 0.023*
  150 0.38 0.41 0.41 0.36 0.009 0.999 −0.001 0.993
Layard’s Parakeet 0 0.47 0.82 0.93 0.45 1.579 0.199 0.087 0.379
Psittacula calthrapae 75 0.49 0.68 0.73 0.77 0.403 0.751 0.105 0.304
  150 0.63 0.79 0.82 0.89 0.301 0.825 0.092 0.367
Malabar Trogon 0 0.96a 0.76 0.36 0.23b 4.057 0.009* −0.322 0.001*
Harpactes fasciatus 75 0.21a 0.38 0.38 0.89b 2.883 0.040* 0.254 0.011*
  150 0.28 0.46 0.37 0.33 0.502 0.682 0.052 0.613
Orange-billed Babbler 0 7.39a 6.75a 1.63b 0.73b 2.776 0.045* −0.254 0.008*
Turdoides rufescens 75 1.69 1.46 2.51 2.71 0.341 0.795 0.079 0.444
  150 1.88 1.32 1.94 1.44 0.131 0.941 −0.031 0.765
Red-faced Malkoha 0 0.45 0.26 0.27 0.09 2.333 0.078 −0.237 0.013*
Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus 75 0.13 0.14 0.13 0.28 0.406 0.749 0.081 0.432
  150 0.16 0.22 0.31 0.25 0.553 0.648 0.111 0.271
Scarlet Minivet 0 1.35 0.93 0.51 0.45 1.492 0.221 −0.201 0.041*
Pericrocotus flammeus 75 0.52 0.36 0.71 0.33 0.256 0.857 0.008 0.938
  150 0.54 0.79 0.28 0.61 0.498 0.685 −0.015 0.881
Spot-Winged Thrush 0 1.47a 0.32b 0.08b 0.07b 7.252 0.000* −0.379 0.000*
Zoothera spiloptera 75 0.21 0.41 0.64 0.71 1.252 0.285 0.188 0.059
  150 0.23 0.43 0.51 0.45 0.491 0.659 0.108 0.292
Sri Lanka Blue Magpie 0 0.49a 1.71b 1.64b 0.29a 9.254 0.000* 0.142 0.143
Urocissa ornata 75 0.10 0.21 0.14 0.00 0.844 0.473 0.044 0.673
  150 0.17 0.43 0.14 0.67 1.864 0.142 0.153 0.129
Sri Lanka Crested Drongo 0 0.84 0.55 0.92 0,17 1.926 0.130 −0.159 0.099
Dicrurus lophorhinus 75 0.12 0.32 0.21 0.67 1.567 0.203 0.169 0.097
  150 0.22 0.46 0.44 0.67 1.087 0.358 0.169 0.091
Sri Lanka Jungle fowl 0 1.01 1.56 1.23 0.56 1.796 0.153 −0.031 0.749
Gallus lafayetti 75 0.13 0.14 0.21 0.33 0.364 0.779 0.094 0.361
  150 0.12 0.10 0.07 0.00 0.153 0.928 −0.070 0.521
Sri Lanka Myna 0 0.57 0.54 0.58 0.31 0.341 0.795 −0.073 0.461
Gracula ptilogenys 75 0.31 0.28 0.25 0.21 0.109 0.955 −0.059 0.569
  150 0.29 0.23 0.07 0.22 0.651 0.584 −0.105 0.305
Sri Lanka Scimitar Babbler 0 1.51a 0.59b 0.17b 0.00b 6.802 0.000* −0.393 0.000*
Pomatorhinus melanurus 75 0.33a 0.91b 1.14b 1.17b 4.123 0.009 0.314 0.002*
  150 0.25 0.36 0.61 0.35 0.672 0.571 0.089 0.376
Tickell’s Blue Flycatcher 0 0.64 0.59 0.38 0.19 1.978 0.122 −0.229 0.021*
Cyornis tickelliae 75 0.55 0.43 0.59 0.61 0.274 0.844 0.033 0.748
  150 0.42 0.52 0.51 0.9 1.555 0.205 0.187 0.062
Yellow-browed Bulbul 0 2.02a 1.78a 1.36 0.73b 2.752 0.047* −0.272 0.006*
Iole indica 75 0.82 1.16 0.96 1.14 0.267 0.849 0.057 0.565
  150 0.85 0.74 0.93 0.90 0.087 0.967 0.001 0.990
  1. Items with different superscripts (lowercase letters) indicate significant difference of means according to Games-Howell post hoc tests. Items without superscripts do not significantly differ from those with superscripts
  2. * Statistical significance at α = 0.05 level