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Table 3 Univariate measurements for song characteristics

From: Integrative taxonomy of the Plain-backed Thrush (Zoothera mollissima) complex (Aves, Turdidae) reveals cryptic species, including a new species

  N. inds. N. str.   Duration (s) Top freq. (Hz) Bottom freq. (Hz) Freq. bandwidth (Hz) Peak freq. (Hz) Mean freq. (Hz)
Alpine Thrush 8 79 Mean 2.57 8220.1 1678.9 6541.2 4177.2 4754.9
   SD 0.48 555.3 227.3 663.6 691.8 420.2
   Range 1.85–4.28 6505.7–9192.1 1176.7–2157.6 4691.6–7762.6 2812.5–5437.5 3699.1–6236.7
“Yunnan Thrush”/Alpine Thrush 3 26 Mean 3.36 6915.9 1946.5 4969.4 3396.6 4611.0
   SD 0.39 537.2 179.5 548.9 227.0 652.3
   Range 2.62–4.40 5581.1–7811.5 1641.2–2256.9 3573.1–5802.6 3000–3750 3038.4–6138.3
Sichuan Forest Thrush 17 168 Mean 4.38 7412.7 1141.2 6271.5 2517.3 4276.9
   SD 1.19 1305.7 158.5 1293.1 457.0 668.6
   Range 1.98–8.61 3231.4–10,011.0 676.2–1471.2 2157.5–8643.1 1894.9–5812.5 2152.7–5689.5
Himalayan Forest Thrush 17 161 Mean 2.74 8023.7 1467.4 6556.4 3138.8 4745.5
   SD 0.51 952.9 182.1 991.7 572.0 474.0
   Range 1.24–5.58 4659.6–11,087.4 719.6–1914.0 2792.8–9701.5 2250.0–5625.0 3038.4–6236.7
Z. dixoni 10 80 Mean 5.79 3949.9 1787.2 2162.7 2747.1 2868.6
   SD 4.53 331.7 193.5 402.7 182.5 182.2
   Range 0.78–19.73 3480.3–5349.7 1073.9–2048.4 1471.7–3520.1 2250.0–3100.8 2565.5–3589.7
Alpine versus “Yunnan”/Alpine     *** *** *** *** ***  
Alpine versus Himalayan Forest       ***   ***  
Alpine versus Sichuan Forest     *** *** ***   *** ***
Alpine versus Z. dixoni     *** ***   *** *** ***
“Yunnan”/Alpine versus Himalayan Forest     *** *** *** *** **  
“Yunnan”/Alpine versus Sichuan Forest     ***   *** *** ***  
“Yunnan”/Alpine versus Z. dixoni     *** *** * *** *** ***
Himalayan Forest versus Sichuan Forest     *** *** ***   *** ***
Himalayan Forest versus Z. dixoni     *** *** *** *** *** ***
Sichuan Forest versus Z. dixoni      *** *** *** *** ***
  1. “Yunnan”/Alpine—birds sound recorded in Yunnan Province, which is hypothesised to be “Yunnan Thrush”, but for which no DNA samples exist (cf. Figs. 10, 13), N. inds.—number of individuals used in the analysis, N. str.—number of strophes used in the analysis
  2. Mean freq.—0.5 × (HighFreq + LowFreq). Two-sample t test with Bonferroni correction
  3. Significance levels * P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; *** P < 0.001; all others not significant