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Table 1 Univariate statistics for measurements and plumage scoring of taxa of the Z. mollissimaZ. dixoni complex

From: Integrative taxonomy of the Plain-backed Thrush (Zoothera mollissima) complex (Aves, Turdidae) reveals cryptic species, including a new species

  Alpine Thrush Z. m. whiteheadi Alpine Thrush Z. m. mollissima s.s. “Yunnan Thrush” Long-tailed Thrush Z. dixoni Sichuan Forest Thrush Z. griseiceps Himalayan Forest Thrush Z. salimalii sp. nov. Blyth’s type of mollissima whiteheadi versus mollissima All Z. mollissima s.l.  versus dixoni Alpine versus griseiceps Alpine versus Himalayan Forest dixoni versus griseiceps dixoni versus Himalayan Forest griseiceps versus Himalayan Forest
Culmen l from skull 27.50 ± 1.22
(25.3–30.4, 21)
27.49 ± 1.00
(23.8–30.4, 93)
28.57 ± 0.23
(28.3–28.7, 3)
27.10 ± 1.24
(23.4–29.5, 33)
30.46 ± 0.59
(29.8–31.6, 8)
29.54 ± 1.44
(25.8–33.8, 53)
    *** *** *** ***  
Culmen l from gape 29.54 ± 1.73
(26.6–34.4, 21)
29.71 ± 1.42
(24.7–33.0, 86)
31.67 ± 0.64
(31.3–32.4, 3)
29.70 ± 1.49
(26.2–32.8, 33)
33.81 ± 0.79
(32.9–35.1, 7)
31.61 ± 1.67
(27.8–36.0, 52)
28.6    *** *** *** *** *
Bill w from distal nares 5.25 ± 0.36
(4.6–5.7, 16)
5.47 ± 0.36
(4.7–6.2, 86)
5.77 ± 0.25
(5.5–6.0, 3)
5.34 ± 0.31
(4.6–5.9, 36)
6.12 ± 0.38
(5.5–6.6, 6)
5.96 ± 0.34
(5.2–6.8, 45)
    *** *** *** ***  
Bill d from distal nares 5.73 ± 0.31
(5.2–5.2, 16)
5.79 ± 0.31
(4.9–6.6, 84)
6.30 ± 0.35
(5.9–6.5, 3)
5.59 ± 0.29
(5.1–6.2, 36)
7.21 ± 0.18
(7.0–7.5, 7)
6.46 ± 0.36
(5.5–7.1, 42)
    *** *** *** *** ***
Culmen ridge w 1.52 ± 0.15
(1.3–1.7, 15)
1.55 ± 0.16
(1.1–2.0, 84)
1.63 ± 0.15
(1.5–1.8, 3)
1.40 ± 0.12
(1.2–1.8, 36)
1.78 ± 0.31
(1.3–2.2, 6)
1.43 ± 0.11
(1.2–1.7, 43)
   ***   ** ***   ***
Bill hook l 2.36 ± 0.39
(1.7–3.2, 21)
2.29 ± 0.30
(1.5–3.0, 81)
2.37 ± 0.23
(2.1–2.5, 3)
2.02 ± 0.29
(1.3–2.6, 32)
2.60 ± 0.25
(2.2–2.9, 6)
2.58 ± 0.49
(1.3–4.2, 50)
   **   ** ** ***  
Skull w 20.01 ± 0.62
(19.1–21.0, 7)
20.07 ± 0.95
(16.7–22.9, 70)
21.00 ± 0.07
(20.9–21.0, 2)
20.40 ± 1.5
(17.0–22.2, 12)
21.80 ± 0.70
(20.8–22.5, 6)
19.82 ± 0.83
(18.4–22.3, 40)
    ***     ***
Rictal bristle l 10.07 ± 1.16
(7.1–12.7, 16)
10.68 ± 1.13
(7.7–13.8, 80)
10.63 ± 0.85
(9.8–11.5, 3)
10.81 ± 1.24
(7.5–13.6, 35)
11.62 ± 1.19
(9.9–12.9, 6)
12.33 ± 1.67
(8.9–15.4, 44)
     ***   ***  
Wing l flat and stretched 142.82 ± 3.46
(137.0–150.5, 25)
141.96 ± 4.46
(129.0–154.0, 94)
152.67 ± 2.52
(150.0–155.0, 3)
138.86 ± 3.77
(133.0–148.0, 38)
142.18 ± 3.72
(138.0–148.5, 8)
136.61 ± 3.80
(127.0–143.0, 51)
136.5   **   ***    *
Wingtip l 44.18 ± 3.14
(35.0–49.0, 25)
44.73 ± 3.25
(33.0–53.0, 98)
45.33 ± 0.58
(45.0–46.0, 3)
43.19 ± 2.82
(39.0–54.0, 37)
38.83 ± 2.86
(34.0–42.0, 6)
41.24 ± 3.45
(26.0–46.0, 51)
    *** ***    
Primary 1 (P1) shortfall 83.91 ± 2.87
(77.0–87.0, 16)
82.30 ± 4.52
(71.0–90.0, 87)
87.33 ± 0.58
(87.0–88.0, 3)
78.17 ± 2.85
(73.0–86.0, 38)
76.29 ± 3.77
(71.0–81.0, 7)
77.57 ± 4.32
(67.0–84.0, 45)
   *** * ***    
P2 shortfall 10.34 ± 1.98
(7.0–13.0, 16)
10.00 ± 1.85
(6.4–15.0, 86)
10.17 ± 1.04
(9.0–11.0, 3)
12.50 ± 1.85
(9.0–16.0, 38)
14.14 ± 2.56
(9.1–17.0, 8)
10.85 ± 2.096.7–15.2, 45) 9.5   *** ***    * *
P3 shortfall 0.44 ± 0.57
(0–1.5, 16)
0.44 ± 0.63
(0–2.0, 87)
0.83 ± 0.29
(0.5–1.0, 3)
1.35 ± 0.86
(0–3.3, 38)
1.75 ± 1.07
(0.5–4.0, 8)
0.91 ± 0.75
(0–2.5, 44)
0   *** *** **    
P4 shortfall 0.27 ± 0.56
(0–2.0, 15)
0.16 ± 0.40
(0–2.0, 84)
0.00 ± 0.00
(3)
0.03 ± 0.16
(0–1.0, 38)
0.06 ± 0.18
(0–0.5, 8)
0.14 ± 0.41
(0–2.0, 45)
0        
P5 shortfall 3.36 ± 1.72
(1.0–8.0, 14)
3.64 ± 1.23
(1.0–8.0, 81)
3.67 ± 0.58
(3.0–4.0, 3)
2.97 ± 0.81
(1.0–4.5, 38)
1.50 ± 0.80
(0–2.5, 8)
2.33 ± 1.13
(0–5.0, 45)
    *** *** **   
P6 shortfall 14.00 ± 1.7
(12.0–18.5, 15)
14.34 ± 1.72
(11.0–19.5, 81)
15.00 ± 1.00
(14.0–16.0, 3)
14.03 ± 1.5
(11.0–17.5, 36)
10.09 ± 1.67
(8.0–13.1, 7)
14.92 ± 2.04
(10.0–20.0, 45)
    ***   ***   ***
P7 shortfall 25.29 ± 2.20
(22.0–30.0, 14)
24.96 ± 2.09
(20.2–30.0, 80)
26.33 ± 0.58
(26.0–27.0, 3)
24.01 ± 1.44
(21.0–27.0, 36)
19.9 ± 2.57
(16.0–23.8, 7)
24.07 ± 2.44
(18.0–31.2, 45)
   * ***   ***   **
P8 shortfall 31.50 ± 3.72
(24.0–39.0, 15)
31.04 ± 2.37
(24.0–37.0, 81)
32.67 ± 0.58
(32.0–33.0, 3)
30.11 ± 1.21
(28.0–32.5, 36)
25.84 ± 2.96
(21.0–30.4, 7)
29.15 ± 2.36
(22.0–34.0, 45)
    *** *** ***   
P9 shortfall 37.13 ± 2.77
(33.0–42.0, 15)
36.41 ± 2.84
(32.0–49.0, 81)
38.00 ± 1.00
(37.0–39.0, 3)
35.25 ± 1.27
(32.0–37.0, 36)
30.29 ± 2.14
(28.0–34.0, 7)
33.48 ± 2.15
(26.0–38.0, 44)
   * *** *** *** ** *
P10 shortfall 42.36 ± 3.67
(37.0–48.0, 14)
40.91 ± 2.55
(36.0–48.0, 78)
43.33 ± 1.16
(42.0–44.0, 3)
39.88 ± 1.54
(37.0–43.0, 36)
34.93 ± 1.88
(33.0–37.5, 7)
37.24 ± 2.54
(30.0–42.0, 43)
   * *** *** *** ***  
P3 emargination l 52.53 ± 3.20
(47.0–59.0, 16)
50.57 ± 2.90
(45.0–59.0, 81)
55.00 ± 1.00
(54.0–56.0, 3)
50.24 ± 2.49
(45.0–55.0, 37)
47.67 ± 3.08
(45.0–52.0, 6)
48.15 ± 2.71
(43.0–54.0, 43)
  **    ***   *  
P4 emargination l 42.44 ± 2.07
(38.0–46.0, 16)
41.50 ± 2.37
(37.0–50.0, 81)
46.33 ± 2.08
(44.0–48.0, 3)
39.65 ± 2.15
(35.0–44.0, 37)
38.17 ± 1.17
(37.0–40.0, 6)
39.40 ± 2.71
(36.0–47.0, 43)
    * ***    
P5 emargination l 33.87 ± 1.93
(37.0–43.0, 16)
33.55 ± 2.56
(28.3–41, 80)
36.33 ± 2.52
(34.0–39.0, 3)
31.03 ± 3.03
(25.0–39.0, 36)
31.00 ± 2.19
(29.0–35.0, 6)
31.18 ± 2.40
(24.0–37.0, 43)
     ***    
P2 notch l 38.88 ± 1.93
(37.0–43.0, 16)
38.99 ± 2.86
(29.0–51.0, 78)
40.00 ± 2.65
(37.0–42.0, 3)
35.97 ± 2.73
(26.0–41.0, 37)
35.00 ± 2.19
(32.0–38.0, 6)
35.40 ± 2.60
(30.0–42.0, 37)
   **   ***    
P3 notch l 37.73 ± 2.22
(34.0–4.01, 15)
36.77 ± 2.51
(29.0–42.0, 75)
41.00 ± 1.00
(40.0–42.0, 3)
34.13 ± 2.08
(30.0–38.0, 32)
33.67 ± 1.51
(32.0–35.0, 6)
33.71 ± 2.16
(29.0–38.0, 35)
   ***   ***    
Tail l 103.94 ± 4.90
(92.0–113.0, 24)
103.25 ± 4.54
(92.0–114.0, 99)
114.0 ± 1.73
(113.0–116.0, 3)
114.61 ± 5.20
(104.0–126.0, 36)
111.75 ± 4.03
(106.0–116.0, 8)
94.49 ± 4.93
(81.7–106.0, 51)
101.6   *** *** ***   *** ***
Undertail coverts to tail tip 35.76 ± 3.14
(31.0–42.0, 14)
36.19 ± 5.16
(28.0–58.0, 80)
37.00 ± 2.65
(35.0–40.0, 3)
45.13 ± 4.68
(33.0–58.2, 36)
43.67 ± 6.09
(40.0–56.0, 6)
34.33 ± 5.07
(25.8–47.0, 43)
   *** *    *** **
Uppertail coverts to tail tip 42.03 ± 7.63
(28.0–56.0, 13)
40.73 ± 5.66
(31.0–60.0, 82)
41.00 ± 2.83
(39.0–43.0, 2)
57.97 ± 5.33
(51.0–71.5, 30)
52.33 ± 4.55
(49.0–61.0, 6)
43.75 ± 4.68
(35.0–54.0, 42)
   *** ***    *** **
Tail graduation 2.37 ± 2.10
(0–7.0, 15)
2.71 ± 1.62
(0–7.0, 80)
2.33 ± 1.53
(1.0–4.0, 3)
5.00 ± 2.02
(1.8–11.0, 32)
5.17 ± 0.75
(4.0–6.0, 6)
3.43 ± 1.52
(1.0–6.1, 40)
   *** *    *  
Maximum w of inner rectrix 17.69 ± 1.61
(15.0–20.0, 13)
17.10 ± 1.41
(13.0–22.0, 79)
17.3 ± 0.58
(17.0–18.0, 3)
17.73 ± 1.29
(15.0–21.0,33)
19.33 ± 1.51
(17.0–21.0, 6)
17.41 ± 1.26
(15.0–20.0, 40)
    *     
Maximum l of white on outer rectrix 11.54 ± 4.71
(3.0–21.0, 17)
12.54 ± 5.88
(2.0–33.0, 81)
15.00 ± 5.00
(10.0–20.0.5, 3)
25.49 ± 6.95
(16.0–52.0, 33)
12.33 ± 3.50
(8.0–18.0, 6)
14.81 ± 4.53
(8.0–28.0, 43)
   ***    ** ***  
Minimum l of white on outer rectrix 3.28 ± 0.87
(2.0–6.0, 17)
3.55 ± 1.03
(1.0–7.0, 81)
3.00 ± 1.00
(2.0–4.0, 3)
12.00 ± 3.76
(4.0–20.0, 32)
3.83 ± 2.56
(1.0–7.0, 6)
4.14 ± 2.29
(2.0–13.0, 41)
   ***    ** ***  
Tarsus l 37.16 ± 1.10
(35.4–39.1, 25)
36.91 ± 1.20
(33.8–39.9, 99)
37.67 ± 1.23
(36.3–38.7, 3)
37.70 ± 0.90
(35.6–39.7, 38)
41.31 ± 1.60
(39.3–43.5, 8)
34.00 ± 1.37
(31.2–38.1, 53)
34.9    *** *** *** *** ***
Hindclaw l 10.33 ± 0.64
(8.8–11.2, 19)
10.30 ± 0.51
(9.2–11.3, 84)
10.6 ± 0.00
(3)
9.56 ± 0.53
(8.4–10.6, 38)
10.51 ± 0.53
(9.7–11.2, 8)
10.19 ± 0.59
(8.9–11.6, 46)
   ***    ** ***  
Bill l/wing l ratio 0.19 ± 0.01
(0.2–0.2, 22)
0.19 ± 0.01
(0.1–0.2, 80)
0.19 ± 0.01
(0.2–0.2, 3)
0.20 ± 0.01
(0.2–0.2, 32)
0.21 ± 0.01
(0.2–0.2, 8)
0.22 ± 0.01
(0.2–0.2, 48)
    *** *** *** ***  
Wing l/tail l ratio 1.38 ± 0.05
(1.3–1.5, 24)
1.38 ± 0.05
(1.3–1.6, 92)
1.34 ± 0.04
(1.3–1.4, 3)
1.22 ± 0.05
(1.1–1.3, 37)
1.27 ± 0.03
(1.2–1.3, 8)
1.44 ± 0.07
(1.3–1.6, 46)
   *** *** ***   *** ***
Bill l/tarsus l ratio 0.74 ± 0.04
(0.7–0.8, 22)
0.74 ± 0.03
(0.7–0.8, 87)
0.76 ± 0.03
(0.7–0.8, 3)
0.72 ± 0.03
(0.6–0.8, 32)
0.74 ± 0.04
(0.7–0.8, 8)
0.87 ± 0.06
(0.7–1.0, 50)
   *   ***   *** ***
Bill l/culmen ridge w ratio 18.09 ± 1.75
(15.9–21.5, 13)
17.56 ± 1.47
(14.4–19.8, 58)
  19.37 ± 1.84
(15.1–24.6, 31)
18.36 ± 2.86
(15.9–23.1, 5)
21.07 ± 1.96
(16.2–26.0, 37)
   **   ***   **  
Bill l/bill d ratio 4.78 ± 0.29
(4.4–5.5, 13)
4.74 ± 0.22
(4.2–5.3, 67)
4.54 ± 0.22
(4.4–4.8, 3)
4.86 ± 0.30
(4.2–5.44, 31)
4.23 ± 0.10
(4.0–4.3, 7)
4.59 ± 0.21
(4.1–4.9, 38)
    *** * *** ** **
Tarsus l/hallux l ratio 3.62 ± 0.23
(3.3–4.0, 19)
3.60 ± 0.18
(3.3–4.1, 53)
3.55 ± 0.12
(3.4–3.6, 3)
3.95 ± 0.21
(3.6–4.5, 38)
3.95 ± 0.22
(3.7–4.3, 7)
3.32 ± 0.23
(2.8–3.9, 41)
   *** ** ***   *** ***
Wing l/tarsus l ratio 3.85 ± 0.14
(3.6–4.2, 25)
3.84 ± 0.13
(3.6–4.1, 91)
4.05 ± 0.09
(4.0–4.1, 3)
3.69 ± 0.12
(3.5–3.9, 38)
3.44 ± 0.09
(3.3–3.6, 8)
4.03 ± 0.20
(3.7–4.4, 48)
   *** *** *** *** *** ***
Mandible color (1 = all fleshy–10 = all black) 5.77 ± 1.69
(3–8, 13)
6.85 ± 1.15
(3–9, 61)
8.67 ± 0.58
(8–9, 3)
6.10 ± 0.87
(4–8, 31)
7.25 ± 1.03
(5–8, 8)
8.14 ± 1.10
(5–10, 42)
  * *   *** ** *** *
Crown color (1 = medium brown–10 = very dark brown) 2.71 ± 1.21
(1–5, 17)
5.10 ± 1.58
(2–8, 60)
8.00 ± 1.73
(6–9, 3)
5.50 ± 1.01
(3–7, 30)
8.13 ± 1.13
(6–9, 8)
7.48 ± 0.97
(5–9, 42)
  ***   *** *** *** ***  
Crown value (1 = grey-brown–10 = russet) 3.06 ± 1.30
(1–5, 17)
4.02 ± 1.37
(2–7, 60)
2.33 ± 1.16
(1–3, 3)
5.10 ± 0.96
(3–7, 30)
2.00 ± 0.76
(1–3, 8)
7.44 ± 1.14
(4–9, 41)
  ** *** *** *** *** *** ***
Crown scalloping (1 = uniform–10 = dark scalloping) 2.41 ± 0.94
(1–4, 17)
4.17 ± 1.44
(1–7, 59)
5.67 ± 1.53
(4–7, 3)
2.50 ± 0.97
(1–5, 30)
6.25 ± 1.49
(4–8, 8)
3.22 ± 2.19
(1–7, 41)
  * *** *** * ***   **
Crown-mantle contrast (1 = none–10 = strong) 2.06 ± 0.90
(1–3, 17)
3.06 ± 1.08
(2–8, 32)
7.33 ± 0.58
(7–8, 3)
2.60 ± 0.72
(1–4, 30)
7.00 ± 1.53
(4–8, 7)
2.20 ± 0.52
(1–3, 20)
     *** ***   ***
Mantle color (1 = very olive–10 = very russet) 3.06 ± 1.30
(1–5, 17)
4.21 ± 1.47
(2–6, 33)
6.33 ± 1.53
(5–8, 3)
4.07 ± 0.83
(3–6, 30)
6.83 ± 1.17
(6–9, 6)
7.95 ± 0.59
(7–9, 21)
  *   ** *** *** *** **
Eyering color (1 = white–5 = buff–10 = absent) 2.00 ± 1.00
(1–5, 17)
2.71 ± 0.99
(1–5, 48)
3.67 ± 1.16
(3–5, 3)
1.75 ± 0.70
(1–3, 28)
3.29 ± 1.25
(2–5, 7)
4.12 ± 0.87
(2–5, 41)
   ***   *** ** ***  
Eyering breadth (1 = very broad–10 = absent) 2.94 ± 1.48
(1–5, 17)
3.02 ± 1.07
(1–5, 49)
3.50 ± 2.12
(2–5, 2)
2.93 ± 1.33
(1–6, 28)
5.00 ± 1.29
(3–7, 7)
4.46 ± 1.14
(2–7, 41)
    *** *** ** ***  
Pale supraloral extent (1 = much pale–10 = no pale) 3.77 ± 1.79
(1–8, 17)
3.22 ± 1.50
(1–8, 59)
3.00 ± 1.00
(2–4, 3)
2.23 ± 0.85
(1–4, 31)
3.25 ± 2.05
(2–8, 8)
5.55 ± 1.85
(2–9, 42)
   **   ***   *** **
Lores value (1 = all-pale–10 = all dark) 5.29 ± 1.49
(3–8, 17)
4.72 ± 1.46
(2–10, 57)
6.33 ± 1.16
(5–7, 3)
3.77 ± 0.97
(2–5, 30)
5.86 ± 1.21
(4–7, 7)
8.17 ± 1.27
(4–10, 42)
   **   *** *** *** ***
Auriculars blotchiness (1 = uniform–10 = large blotches) 4.41 ± 1.87
(1–7, 17)
5.71 ± 1.08
(3–8, 58)
4.50 ± 3.54
(2–7, 2)
8.00 ± 1.07
(6–10, 31)
2.00 ± 0.82
(1–3, 7)
4.98 ± 1.77
(1–8, 41)
   *** *** ** *** *** ***
Auriculars streakiness (1 = streaked–10 = unstreaked) 4.47 ± 1.7
(1–7, 17)
4.43 ± 1.58
(1–8, 58)
4.50 ± 3.54
(2–7, 2)
5.73 ± 2.0
(3–9, 30)
1.57 ± 0.79
(1–3, 7)
3.46 ± 1.34
(2–7, 41)
    *** *** *** *** ***
Pale submoustachial prominence (1 = not apparent–10 = all-white) 4.00 ± 2.24
(2–10, 17)
4.90 ± 1.54
(2–10, 58)
5.33 ± 0.58
(5–6, 3)
3.74 ± 1.29
(2–7, 31)
7.12 ± 0.99
(6–9, 8)
6.17 ± 1.21
(3–8, 42)
  * * *** *** *** ***  
Dark malar prominence (1 = not apparent, 10 = black) 4.06 ± 1.35
(3–7, 17)
5.19 ± 1.33
(3–9, 58)
4.00 ± 1.73
(2–5, 3)
3.97 ± 1.05
(2–6, 31)
6.38 ± 2.07
(4–9, 8)
7.45 ± 1.31
(5–10, 42)
  * **   *** ** ***  
Throat color (1 = white–10 = buff) 2.59 ± 1.46
(1–6, 17)
3.75 ± 1.60
(1–8, 59)
4.33 ± 0.58
(4–5, 3)
2.19 ± 1.05
(1–7, 31)
5.88 ± 1.55
(3–8, 8)
6.50 ± 1.50
(3–9, 42)
  ** *** *** *** *** ***  
Throat marking (1 = none–10 = heavy) 3.41 ± 1.50
(2–7, 17)
4.09 ± 1.47
(2–8, 59)
6.00 ± 2.65
(3–8, 3)
2.58 ± 0.85
(1–6, 31)
2.25 ± 0.89
(1–4, 8)
2.67 ± 0.95
(1–6, 42)
  * *** *** ***    
Breast ground color (1 = white–10 = buff) 5.77 ± 2.56
(2–9, 17)
6.70 ± 1.60
(2–10, 60)
8.33 ± 1.16
(7–9, 3)
4.23 ± 1.33
(2–9, 31)
8.88 ± 0.64
(8–10, 8)
8.00 ± 0.86
(6–9, 42)
  * *** *** *** *** *** *
Central breast mark shape (1 = triangles–10 = chevrons) 1.88 ± 1.17
(1–5, 17)
1.49 ± 1.15
(1–8, 59)
4.33 ± 0.58
(4–5, 3)
3.61 ± 1.02
(1–5, 31)
3.25 ± 1.49
(1–5, 8)
2.57 ± 1.21
(1–7, 42)
   ** *** ***   ***  
Central breast mark density (1 = very light–10 = very heavy) 5.35 ± 2.23
(1–8, 17)
6.08 ± 1.78
(1–9, 60)
6.00 ± 1.00
(5–7, 3)
4.55 ± 1.15
(2–7, 31)
5.00 ± 1.51
(3–7, 8)
7.21 ± 1.24
(4–9, 42)
   **   ***   *** ***
Flank mark density (1 = very light–10 = very heavy) 4.29 ± 1.40
(2–7, 17)
5.12 ± 1.60
(2–8, 60)
7.33 ± 0.58
(7–8, 3)
4.03 ± 1.74
(2–8, 31)
5.38 ± 2.00
(2–8, 8)
5.59 ± 1.48
(3–8, 42)
  * **     ***  
Flank mark shape (1 = straight–10 = chevrons) 6.88 ± 2.18
(3–10, 17)
7.07 ± 1.46
(2–9, 60)
5.68 ± 1.53
(4–7, 3)
1.36 ± 0.55
(1–3, 31)
4.00 ± 2.27
(2–7, 8)
4.79 ± 1.98
(1–10, 42)
  ** *** *** *** *** ***  
Central belly markings (1 = none–10 = heavy) 3.41 ± 1.23
(2–7, 17)
3.27 ± 1.00
(2–6, 56)
2.50 ± 0.71
(2–3, 2)
1.29 ± 0.46
(1–2, 31)
2.50 ± 0.76
(2–4, 8)
3.83 ± 1.22
(3–7, 42)
   *** * * *** *** ***
Vent percent dark (1 = all-white 10 = all dark) 5.41 ± 1.18
(4–7, 17)
4.66 ± 1.25
(1–8, 61)
4.67 ± 0.58
(4–5, 3)
2.45 ± 0.51
(2–3, 31)
6.25 ± 1.16
(5–8, 8)
6.52 ± 1.31
(5–9, 42)
  * *** ** *** *** ***  
Undertail-tail tips contrast (1 = very weak–10 = very strong) 3.19 ± 0.91
(2–5, 16)
3.11 ± 1.31
(2–8, 65)
6.33 ± 2.89
(3–8, 3)
4.55 ± 1.45
(2–7, 29)
6.00 ± 1.77
(3–8, 8)
7.24 ± 1.38
(3–9, 42)
   ** *** *** * *** *
Claw color (1 = much darker than toes–10 = much paler than toes) 3.69 ± 1.12
(2–5, 17)
3.37 ± 1.13
(1–7, 59)
2.67 ± 1.53
(2–5, 3)
6.23 ± 1.23
(3–8, 31)
7.88 ± 1.13
(7–10, 8)
7.40 ± 1.35
(3–10, 42)
   *** *** *** ** ***  
Patterning on folded wing (1 = none–10 = strong) 3.88 ± 1.27
(2–5, 17)
6.12 ± 1.02
(4–8, 33)
3.33 ± 1.53
(2–5, 3)
7.23 ± 0.96
(5–9, 31)
3.29 ± 1.35
(2–6, 7)
4.57 ± 0.93
(2–6, 41)
   *** *** *** *** *** **
Primary coverts pattern (1 = none–10 = strong) 5.00 ± 1.37
(3–7, 17)
6.97 ± 0.98
(4–8, 33)
4.33 ± 2.52
(2–7, 3)
7.68 ± 0.70
(6–9, 31)
4.00 ± 1.58
(2–6, 5)
5.81 ± 1.08
(4–8, 21)
   *** *** *** *** *** **
Secondary covert edge width (1 = broad–10 = absent) 7.12 ± 1.27
(4–9, 17)
7.51 ± 1.46
(4–10, 33)
7.33 ± 1.16
(6–8, 3)
2.61 ± 1.05
(1–7, 31)
4.71 ± 1.50
(3–7, 7)
8.38 ± 1.16
(5–10, 21)
  * *** *** ** *** *** ***
Secondary covert edge color (1 = white–5 = buff–10 = absent) 5.77 ± 2.25
(2–9, 17)
5.52 ± 2.59
(1–10, 33)
5.33 ± 2.08
(3–7, 3)
4.87 ± 0.34
(4–5, 31)
5.71 ± 1.25
(5–8, 7)
6.09 ± 1.81
(4–10, 21)
      * ***  
Tertial edge strength (1 = strong–10 = absent) 7.27 ± 2.05
(3–10, 15)
8.36 ± 1.08
(4–9, 33)
6.00 ± 2.65
(3–8, 3)
6.35 ± 2.08
(3–10, 29)
8.29 ± 0.76
(7–9, 7)
8.71 ± 1.49
(3–10, 21)
     * * ***  
Tertial edge color (1 = white–5 = buff–10 = absent) 5.53 ± 3.07
(1–10, 15)
6.00 ± 3.04
(1–9, 33)
4.33 ± 3.22
(2–8, 3)
6.00 ± 2.2
(3–10, 29)
8.00 ± 1.87
(5–10, 7)
8.38 ± 1.75
(3–10, 21)
   *   ***   ***  
  1. Significance levels (* P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; *** P < 0.001; all others not significant)
  2. l length, w width, d depth