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Table 1 Studies of vocal sex dimorphism of monomorphic birds included in this review

From: Gender identification using acoustic analysis in birds without external sexual dimorphism

Order Common and scientific names Call type Method Sexing reliability Number of birds References
Apterygiformes Little Spotted Kiwi (Apteryx owenii) Loud whistle call Measuring acoustic variables 100 % 9 m; 6 f Digby et al. (2013)
Anseriformes White-faced Whistling Duck (Dendrocygna viduata) Loud whistle call Measuring acoustic variables 100 % 14 m; 9 f Volodin et al. (2005a, 2009)
  Fulvous Whistling Duck (Dendrocygna bicolor) Loud whistle call Measuring acoustic variables 100 % 6 m; 5 f Volodin et al. (2009)
  Cuban Whistling Duck (Dendrocygna arborea) Loud whistle call Measuring acoustic variables 100 % 10 m; 7 f Volodin et al. (2009)
  Red-billed Whistling Duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis) Loud whistle call Measuring acoustic variables 100 % 4 m; 4 f Volodin et al. (2009)
  Red-breasted Goose (Branta ruficollis) Two-syllable call Measuring acoustic variables and DFA No sex differences 22 m; 12 f Volodin et al. (2008)
  Red-breasted Goose (Branta ruficollis) Duet call (triumph ceremony) Revealing male and female parties by spectrogram 100 % 65 birds Volodin (1990b)
  White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons) Duet call (triumph ceremony) Visual inspection of spectrogram High Not given Krechmar (2003)
Galliformes Willow Ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) “krrow” call Visual inspection of spectrogram High Not given Martin et al. (1995)
Podicipediformes Black-necked Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) Advertising call Measuring acoustic variables High 38 m; 27 f Nuechterlein and Buitron (1992)
Columbiformes Orange-bellied Fruit-dove (Ptilinopus iozonus) Coo call Visual inspection of spectrogram High Not given Baptista and Gaunt (1997)
  Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) Coo call Measuring acoustic variables 100 % 9 m; 6 f Ballintijn and ten Cate (1997)
Caprimulgiformes Marbled Frogmouth (Podargus ocellatus) Gobble call Measuring acoustic variables High 20 m; 21 f Smith and Jones (1997)
Cuculiformes Pheasant Coucal (Centropus phasianinus Descending whoops call; scale call Measuring acoustic variables High 9 m; 9 f Maurer et al. (2008)
Gruiformes Purple Swamphen (Porphyrio porphyrio) Crowing call Visual inspection of spectrogram High Not given Clapperton (1983)
  American Hoot (Fulica americana) Squeak call, 1-note recognition call, 2-note recognition call Measuring acoustic variables 100 % 14 birds Cosens (1981)
  Whooping Crane (Grus americana) Guard call Measuring acoustic variables and DFA High 141 m; 118 f Carlson and Trost (1992)
  White-naped Crane (Grus vipio) Guard call Measuring acoustic variables Low 5 m; 5 f Bragina and Beme (2013)
  White-naped Crane (Grus vipio) Duet call Revealing male and female parties by spectrogram 100 % Not given Swengel (1996)
  Siberian Crane (Grus leucogeranus) Trill call Measuring acoustic variables High 9 m; 9 f Bragina and Beme (2007)
  Red-crowned Crane (Grus japonensis) Duet call Revealing male and female parties by spectrogram 100 % 10 m; 10 f Klenova et al. (2008)
Procellariiformes Leach’s Storm-petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa) Chatter call Measuring acoustic variables 100 % 14 m; 12 f Taoka et al. (1989a)
  Swinhoe’s Storm-petrel (Oceanodroma monorhis) Flight call Visual inspection of spectrogram 100 % 50 m; 50 f Taoka et al. (1989b), Taoka and Okumura (1990)
  Madeiran Storm-petrel (Oceanodroma castro) Flight call Visual inspection of spectrogram 100 % Not given James and Robertson (1985a)
  Fork-tailed Storm petrel (Oceanodroma furcata) Single-syllable call Visual inspection of spectrogram 100 % Not given Simons (1981)
  Greater Shearwater (Puffinus gravis) Burrow call Measuring acoustic variables High 12 m; 10 f Brooke (1988)
  Little Shearwater (Puffinus assimilis) Burrow call, flight call Visual inspection of spectrogram 100 % 14 m; 14 f James and Robertson (1985b)
  Manx Shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) Burrow call Visual inspection of spectrogram High 18 m; 11 f Brooke (1978)
  Yelkouan Shearwater (Puffinus yelkouan) Burrow call Measuring acoustic variables 100 % 28 m; 18 f (in two studies) Bourgeois et al. (2007), Cure et al. (2009, 2011)
  Balearic Shearwater (Puffinus mauretanicus) Burrow call Measuring acoustic variables 100 % 11 m; 10 f Cure et al. (2010)
  Cory’s Shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) Burrow call Measuring acoustic variables 100 % 62 m; 45 f (in two studies) Bretagnolle and Lequette (1990), Cure et al. (2009)
  Blue Petrel (Halobaena caerulea) Burrow call Visual inspection of spectrogram High 404 m; 100 f Bretagnolle (1990), Bretagnolle and Genevois (1997)
  Thin-billed Prion (Pachyptila belcheri) Burrow call Visual inspection of spectrogram 100 % 154 m; 127 f Genevois and Bretagnolle (1995)
  Broad-billed Prion (Pachyptila vittata) Burrow call Visual inspection of spectrogram High Not given Bretagnolle et al. (1990)
  Antarctic Prion (Pachyptila desolata) Burrow call Visual inspection of spectrogram High Not given Bretagnolle et al. (1990)
  Fairy Prion (Pachyptila turtur) Burrow call Visual inspection of spectrogram High Not given Bretagnolle et al. (1990)
  Salvin’s Prion (Pachyptila salvini) Burrow call Visual inspection of spectrogram High Not given Bretagnolle et al. (1990)
  Bulwer’s Petrel (Bulweria bulwerii) Single call, double call, repeat call Measuring acoustic variables No sex differences 18 m; 24 f James and Robertson (1985c)
  Snow Petrel (Pagodroma nivea) Burrow call Measuring acoustic variables No sex differences 26 m; 24 f Barbraud et al. (2000)
Ciconiiformes Oriental Stork (Ciconia boyciana) Clatter Measuring acoustic variables 100 % 7 m; 7 f Eda-Fujiwara et al. (2004)
Charadriiformes Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) Long call Measuring acoustic variables and DFA 100 % 18 m; 14 f Aubin et al. (2007)
  Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) Long call Measuring acoustic variables and DFA Low 41 m; 35 f Mulard et al. (2009)
  European Herring gull (Larus argentatus) Kyow alarm call, kek alarm call Measuring acoustic variables No sex differences 8 m; 8 f Hardouin et al. (2013)
  Brown Skua (Catharacta antarctica) Loud call, contact call, alarm call Measuring acoustic variables and DFA Low 20 m; 22 f Janicke et al. (2007)
  Parakeet Auklet (Cyclorhynchus psitaculla) Whinny call Measuring acoustic variables and DFA High 8 m; 5 f Klenova et al. (2012)
  Crested Auklet (Aethia cristatella) Trumpet call Measuring acoustic variables and DFA No sex differences 9 m; 4 f Klenova et al. (2012)
Strigiformes Eastern Screech-owl (Otus asio) Bounce song Measuring acoustic variables High 5 m; 3 f Cavanagh and Ritchison (1987)
  Western Screech-owl (Otus kennicottii) Bounce song Measuring acoustic variables 100 % 15 m; 10 f Herting and Belthoff (2001)
  Barred Owl (Strix varia) One-phrased hoot, inspection call Measuring acoustic variables High 2 m; 4 f Odom and Mennill (2010)
  African Wood Owl (Strix woodfordii) Hoot call Measuring acoustic variables High Not given Steyn and Scott (1972)
  Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) “u-hu” call Measuring acoustic variables 100 % 9 m; 9 f Grava et al. (2008)
Coraciiformes Green Woodhoopoe (Phoeniculus purpureus) “kek” call Measuring acoustic variables 100 % 41 m; 38 f Radford (2004)
  European Bee-eater (Merops apiaster) Provisioning call Measuring acoustic variables No sex differences 14 m; 14 f Lessells et al. (1995)
Falconiformes White-tailed Hawk (Buteo albicaudatus) Alarm call Measuring acoustic variables High 3 m; 3 f Farquahar (1993)
Psittaciformes Poicephalus Parrots 6 species Distress call Measuring acoustic variables Low 4–10 birds per species Venuto et al. (2001)
  Kea (Nestor notabilis) Mew call, screech call Measuring acoustic variables Low Not given Schwing et al. (2012)
Passeriformes White-rumped Munia (Lonchura striata phaethontoptila) Distant call Visual inspection of spectrogram 100 % 13 m; 13 f Mizuta et al. (2003)
  1. DFA discriminate function analysis, m males, f females