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Table 2 Seasonal variations in digestive tract morphology in Chinese Bulbuls

From: Seasonal variation in body mass and energy budget in Chinese bulbuls (pycnonotus sinensis)

Category Spring Summer Autumn Winter p value
Sample size (n) 23 23 24 18  
Digestive tract length (mm)      
Gizzard 14.6 ± 0.5b 13.6 ± 0.5b 13.7 ± 0.5b 14.8 ± 0.6a >0.05
Small intestines 120.6 ± 2.0b 115.0 ± 2.0a 115.9 ± 2.0a 128.6 ± 2.3c <0.001
Rectum 12.1 ± 0.5 12.3 ± 0.5 12.9 ± 0.5 13.2 ± 0.5 >0.05
Total digestive tract 147.4 ± 2.0b 140.9 ± 2.0a 142.4 ± 2.0ab 156.7 ± 2.3c <0.001
Digestive tract wet mass (mg)      
Gizzard 626.1 ± 17.3c 547.5 ± 17.2b 488.4 ± 17.3a 545.9 ± 19.9b <0.001
Small intestine 1681.1 ± 69.1a 1605.3 ± 68.5a 1643.6 ± 68.9a 2115.2 ± 79.9b <0.001
Rectum 145.7 ± 10.0a 141.8 ± 9.9a 176.7 ± 10.0b 138.6 ± 11.5a <0.05
Total digestive tract 2452.9 ± 77.8a 2294.6 ± 77.1a 2308.8 ± 77.5a 2799.7 ± 89.6b <0.001
Digestive tract dry mass (mg)      
Gizzard 183.8 ± 6.1b 156.3 ± 6.1a 153.7 ± 6.1a 166.3 ± 7.1b <0.01
Small intestines 303.3 ± 13.1a 287.6 ± 12.9a 352.5 ± 13.0b 413.4 ± 15.0c <0.001
Rectum 24.2 ± 1.2b 20.3 ± 1.2a 25.5 ± 1.2b 26.0 ± 1.4b <0.01
Total digestive tract 511.4 ± 15.8b 464.2 ± 15.6a 531.8 ± 15.7b 605.7 ± 15.0c <0.001
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SE, bold indicated statistical differences. The different superscripts in the same row indicate significant differences.